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William Edmund Sonntag

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
DepartmentDepartment of Geriatrics
Address975 NE 10th St
Oklahoma City OK 73104-5419
Phone405/271-7622
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Tufts University, Medford, MABS05/1972Psychology/Chemistry
    Tulane University, New Orleans, LAPhD05/1979Psychological Psychology
    Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI06/1985Neuroendocrinology/Aging

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse keywords

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    R23AA006833     (SONNTAG, WILLIAM EDMUND)Sep 27, 1985 - Aug 31, 1988
    NIH/NIAAA
    CHRONIC ETHANOL, GROWTH HORMONE AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AG005637     (SONNTAG, WILLIAM EDMUND)Sep 30, 1985 - Jun 30, 1989
    NIH/NIA
    REGULATION OF GROWTH HORMONE SECRETION IN AGING RATS
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AG007752     (SONNTAG, WILLIAM EDMUND)Apr 1, 1988 - Mar 31, 1998
    NIH/NIA
    GROWTH HORMONE (GH) AND GH-DEPENDENT BIOMARKERS OF AGING
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AA008536     (SONNTAG, WILLIAM EDMUND)Apr 1, 1990 - Mar 31, 1995
    NIH/NIAAA
    CHRONIC ETHANOL AND INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS
    Role: Principal Investigator

    P01AG011370     (SONNTAG, WILLIAM EDMUND)Apr 1, 1995 - Mar 31, 2013
    NIH/NIA
    Growth Hormone &IGF-1 in CNS and Cerebrovascular Aging
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AG014768     (SONNTAG, WILLIAM EDMUND)May 1, 1998 - Apr 30, 2002
    NIH/NIA
    TNF ALPHA REG OF THE GROWTH HORMONE/IGF-1 AXIS WITH AGE
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AG019392     (SONNTAG, WILLIAM EDMUND)May 1, 2001 - Apr 30, 2004
    NIH/NIA
    Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and Age-related Pathogenesis
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01NS056218     (CSISZAR, ANNA)Jul 1, 2006 - Mar 31, 2019
    NIH/NINDS
    Effects of Radiation on Brain Microvasculature and Cognition
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AG026607     (SONNTAG, WILLIAM EDMUND)Mar 1, 2007 - Jan 31, 2014
    NIH/NIA
    Cognitive Decline &Protein Expression Profiles in Aging
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AG038747     (SONNTAG, WILLIAM EDMUND)Mar 1, 2011 - Feb 29, 2016
    NIH/NIA
    NOVEL APPROACHES FOR REGULATION OF IGF-1 LEVELS THROUGHOUT THE LIFESPAN
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R13AG041622     (HAROOTYAN, LINDA KROGH)Sep 30, 2011 - Mar 31, 2014
    NIH/NIA
    Biology of Aging Sessions at Meetings of The Gerontological Society of America
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Ashpole NM, Logan S, Yabluchanskiy A, Mitschelen MC, Yan H, Farley JA, Hodges EL, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A, Chen S, Georgescu C, Hubbard GB, Ikeno Y, Sonntag WE. IGF-1 has sexually dimorphic, pleiotropic, and time-dependent effects on healthspan, pathology, and lifespan. Geroscience. 2017 Apr; 39(2):129-145. PMID: 28409331.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Tarantini S, Valcarcel-Ares NM, Yabluchanskiy A, Springo Z, Fulop GA, Ashpole N, Gautam T, Giles CB, Wren JD, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z. Insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency exacerbates hypertension-induced cerebral microhemorrhages in mice, mimicking the aging phenotype. Aging Cell. 2017 Jun; 16(3):469-479. PMID: 28295976.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Gardner AW, Montgomery PS, Zhao YD, Silva-Palacios F, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A, Sonntag WE. Association between daily walking and antioxidant capacity in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease. J Vasc Surg. 2017 Jun; 65(6):1762-1768. PMID: 28259579.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Podlutsky A, Valcarcel-Ares MN, Yancey K, Podlutskaya V, Nagykaldi E, Gautam T, Miller RA, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z. The GH/IGF-1 axis in a critical period early in life determines cellular DNA repair capacity by altering transcriptional regulation of DNA repair-related genes: implications for the developmental origins of cancer. Geroscience. 2017 Apr; 39(2):147-160. PMID: 28233247.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Hopiavuori BR, Agbaga MP, Brush RS, Sullivan MT, Sonntag WE, Anderson RE. Regional changes in CNS and retinal glycerophospholipid profiles with age: a molecular blueprint. J Lipid Res. 2017 Apr; 58(4):668-680. PMID: 28202633.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z. GeroScience: understanding the interaction of processes of aging and chronic diseases. Age (Dordr). 2016 Dec; 38(5-6):377-378. PMID: 27924421.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Zhang D, Marlin MC, Liang Z, Ahmad M, Ashpole NM, Sonntag WE, Zhao ZJ, Li G. The Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase MEG2 Regulates the Transport and Signal Transduction of Tropomyosin Receptor Kinase A. J Biol Chem. 2016 Nov 11; 291(46):23895-23905. PMID: 27655914.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Tarantini S, Tucsek Z, Valcarcel-Ares MN, Toth P, Gautam T, Giles CB, Ballabh P, Wei JY, Wren JD, Ashpole NM, Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A. Circulating IGF-1 deficiency exacerbates hypertension-induced microvascular rarefaction in the mouse hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex: implications for cerebromicrovascular and brain aging. Age (Dordr). 2016 Aug; 38(4):273-289. PMID: 27613724.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Tarantini S, Giles CB, Wren JD, Ashpole NM, Valcarcel-Ares MN, Wei JY, Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A. IGF-1 deficiency in a critical period early in life influences the vascular aging phenotype in mice by altering miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation: implications for the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis. Age (Dordr). 2016 Aug; 38(4):239-258. PMID: 27566308.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Luo TD, Alton TB, Apel PJ, Cai J, Barnwell JC, Sonntag WE, Smith TL, Li Z. Effects of age and insulin-like growth factor-1 on rat neurotrophin receptor expression after nerve injury. Muscle Nerve. 2016 Oct; 54(4):769-75. PMID: 26970089.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Hadad N, Masser DR, Logan S, Wronowski B, Mangold CA, Clark N, Otalora L, Unnikrishnan A, Ford MM, Giles CB, Wren JD, Richardson A, Sonntag WE, Stanford DR, Freeman W. Absence of genomic hypomethylation or regulation of cytosine-modifying enzymes with aging in male and female mice. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2016; 9:30. PMID: 27413395; PMCID: PMC4942942.
    12. Masser DR, Stanford DR, Hadad N, Giles CB, Wren JD, Sonntag WE, Richardson A, Freeman WM. Bisulfite oligonucleotide-capture sequencing for targeted base- and strand-specific absolute 5-methylcytosine quantitation. Age (Dordr). 2016 Jun; 38(3):49. PMID: 27091453; PMCID: PMC5005917 [Available on 06/01/17].
    13. Ashpole NM, Herron JC, Estep PN, Logan S, Hodges EL, Yabluchanskiy A, Humphrey MB, Sonntag WE. Differential effects of IGF-1 deficiency during the life span on structural and biomechanical properties in the tibia of aged mice. Age (Dordr). 2016 Apr; 38(2):38. PMID: 26968399; PMCID: PMC5005911 [Available on 04/01/17].
    14. Mangold CA, Masser DR, Stanford DR, Bixler GV, Pisupati A, Giles CB, Wren JD, Ford MM, Sonntag WE, Freeman WM. CNS-wide Sexually Dimorphic Induction of the Major Histocompatibility Complex 1 Pathway With Aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 Jan; 72(1):16-29. PMID: 26786204.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Gardner AW, Parker DE, Montgomery PS, Sosnowska D, Casanegra AI, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A, Zhang SX, Wang JJ, Sonntag WE. INFLUENCE OF DIABETES ON AMBULATION AND INFLAMMATION IN MEN AND WOMEN WITH SYMPTOMATIC PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE. J Clin Transl Endocrinol. 2015 Dec 01; 2(4):137-143. PMID: 26835254.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Deak F, Freeman WM, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A, Sonntag WE. Recent Developments in Understanding Brain Aging: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Cognitive Impairment. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016 Jan; 71(1):13-20. PMID: 26590911; PMCID: PMC4851715 [Available on 01/01/17].
    17. Toth P, Tarantini S, Davila A, Valcarcel-Ares MN, Tucsek Z, Varamini B, Ballabh P, Sonntag WE, Baur JA, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z. Purinergic glio-endothelial coupling during neuronal activity: role of P2Y1 receptors and eNOS in functional hyperemia in the mouse somatosensory cortex. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015 Dec 01; 309(11):H1837-45. PMID: 26453330; PMCID: PMC4698379 [Available on 12/01/16].
    18. Ashpole NM, Herron JC, Mitschelen MC, Farley JA, Logan S, Yan H, Ungvari Z, Hodges EL, Csiszar A, Ikeno Y, Humphrey MB, Sonntag WE. IGF-1 Regulates Vertebral Bone Aging Through Sex-Specific and Time-Dependent Mechanisms. J Bone Miner Res. 2016 Feb; 31(2):443-54. PMID: 26260312; PMCID: PMC4854536 [Available on 02/01/17].
    19. Tarantini S, Hertelendy P, Tucsek Z, Valcarcel-Ares MN, Smith N, Menyhart A, Farkas E, Hodges EL, Towner R, Deak F, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z, Toth P. Pharmacologically-induced neurovascular uncoupling is associated with cognitive impairment in mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2015 Nov; 35(11):1871-81. PMID: 26174328; PMCID: PMC4635246 [Available on 11/01/16].
    20. Toth P, Tarantini S, Ashpole NM, Tucsek Z, Milne GL, Valcarcel-Ares NM, Menyhart A, Farkas E, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z. IGF-1 deficiency impairs neurovascular coupling in mice: implications for cerebromicrovascular aging. Aging Cell. 2015 Dec; 14(6):1034-44. PMID: 26172407; PMCID: PMC4693458.
    21. Springo Z, Toth P, Tarantini S, Ashpole NM, Tucsek Z, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Koller A, Ungvari ZI. Aging impairs myogenic adaptation to pulsatile pressure in mouse cerebral arteries. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2015 Mar 31; 35(4):527-30. PMID: 25605292; PMCID: PMC4420893.
    22. Toth P, Tarantini S, Springo Z, Tucsek Z, Gautam T, Giles CB, Wren JD, Koller A, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z. Aging exacerbates hypertension-induced cerebral microhemorrhages in mice: role of resveratrol treatment in vasoprotection. Aging Cell. 2015 Jun; 14(3):400-8. PMID: 25677910; PMCID: PMC4406669.
    23. Springo Z, Tarantini S, Toth P, Tucsek Z, Koller A, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z. Aging Exacerbates Pressure-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Mouse Cerebral Arteries. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Nov; 70(11):1355-9. PMID: 25631392; PMCID: PMC4612385 [Available on 11/01/16].
    24. Gardner AW, Parker DE, Montgomery PS, Sosnowska D, Casanegra AI, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A, Sonntag WE. Endothelial Cell Inflammation and Antioxidant Capacity are Associated With Exercise Performance and Microcirculation in Patients With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease. Angiology. 2015 Oct; 66(9):867-74. PMID: 25603804.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Ungvari Z, Sonntag WE. Brain and cerebrovascular aging--new mechanisms and insights. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Nov; 69(11):1307-10. PMID: 25301834.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Ashpole NM, Sanders JE, Hodges EL, Yan H, Sonntag WE. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and the aging brain. Exp Gerontol. 2015 Aug; 68:76-81. PMID: 25300732; PMCID: PMC4388761.
    27. Toth P, Tucsek Z, Tarantini S, Sosnowska D, Gautam T, Mitschelen M, Koller A, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z. IGF-1 deficiency impairs cerebral myogenic autoregulation in hypertensive mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014 Dec; 34(12):1887-97. PMID: 25248835; PMCID: PMC4269740.
    28. Banki E, Sosnowska D, Tucsek Z, Gautam T, Toth P, Tarantini S, Tamas A, Helyes Z, Reglodi D, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z. Age-related decline of autocrine pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide impairs angiogenic capacity of rat cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Jun; 70(6):665-74. PMID: 25136000; PMCID: PMC4447801.
    29. Yan H, Mitschelen M, Toth P, Ashpole NM, Farley JA, Hodges EL, Warrington JP, Han S, Fung KM, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z, Sonntag WE. Endothelin-1-induced focal cerebral ischemia in the growth hormone/IGF-1 deficient Lewis Dwarf rat. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Nov; 69(11):1353-62. PMID: 25098324; PMCID: PMC4271094.
    30. Ashpole NM, Warrington JP, Mitschelen MC, Yan H, Sosnowska D, Gautam T, Farley JA, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z, Sonntag WE. Systemic influences contribute to prolonged microvascular rarefaction after brain irradiation: a role for endothelial progenitor cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014 Sep 15; 307(6):H858-68. PMID: 25038144; PMCID: PMC4166745.
    31. Masser DR, Bixler GV, Brucklacher RM, Yan H, Giles CB, Wren JD, Sonntag WE, Freeman WM. Hippocampal subregions exhibit both distinct and shared transcriptomic responses to aging and nonneurodegenerative cognitive decline. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Nov; 69(11):1311-24. PMID: 24994846; PMCID: PMC4271093.
    32. Csiszar A, Gautam T, Sosnowska D, Tarantini S, Banki E, Tucsek Z, Toth P, Losonczy G, Koller A, Reglodi D, Giles CB, Wren JD, Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z. Caloric restriction confers persistent anti-oxidative, pro-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects and promotes anti-aging miRNA expression profile in cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells of aged rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014 Aug 01; 307(3):H292-306. PMID: 24906921; PMCID: PMC4121647.
    33. Tucsek Z, Toth P, Tarantini S, Sosnowska D, Gautam T, Warrington JP, Giles CB, Wren JD, Koller A, Ballabh P, Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A. Aging exacerbates obesity-induced cerebromicrovascular rarefaction, neurovascular uncoupling, and cognitive decline in mice. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Nov; 69(11):1339-52. PMID: 24895269; PMCID: PMC4204615.
    34. Gardner AW, Parker DE, Montgomery PS, Sosnowska D, Casanegra AI, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A, Sonntag WE. Greater endothelial apoptosis and oxidative stress in patients with peripheral artery disease. Int J Vasc Med. 2014; 2014:160534. PMID: 24963409; PMCID: PMC4054861.
    35. Gardner AW, Parker DE, Montgomery PS, Sosnowska D, Casanegra AI, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A, Sonntag WE. Gender and racial differences in endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease. J Vasc Surg. 2015 May; 61(5):1249-57. PMID: 24703977; PMCID: PMC4185015.
    36. Csiszár A, Csiszar A, Pinto JT, Gautam T, Kleusch C, Hoffmann B, Tucsek Z, Toth P, Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z. Resveratrol encapsulated in novel fusogenic liposomes activates Nrf2 and attenuates oxidative stress in cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells from aged rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Mar; 70(3):303-13. PMID: 24642904; PMCID: PMC4351387.
    37. Sosnowska D, Richardson C, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z, Ridgway I. A heart that beats for 500 years: age-related changes in cardiac proteasome activity, oxidative protein damage and expression of heat shock proteins, inflammatory factors, and mitochondrial complexes in Arctica islandica, the longest-living noncolonial animal. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Dec; 69(12):1448-61. PMID: 24347613; PMCID: PMC4271020.
    38. Toth P, Tarantini S, Tucsek Z, Ashpole NM, Sosnowska D, Gautam T, Ballabh P, Koller A, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z. Resveratrol treatment rescues neurovascular coupling in aged mice: role of improved cerebromicrovascular endothelial function and downregulation of NADPH oxidase. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014 Feb; 306(3):H299-308. PMID: 24322615; PMCID: PMC3920140.
    39. Tucsek Z, Toth P, Sosnowska D, Gautam T, Mitschelen M, Koller A, Szalai G, Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A. Obesity in aging exacerbates blood-brain barrier disruption, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress in the mouse hippocampus: effects on expression of genes involved in beta-amyloid generation and Alzheimer's disease. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Oct; 69(10):1212-26. PMID: 24269929; PMCID: PMC4172034.
    40. Toth P, Csiszar A, Tucsek Z, Sosnowska D, Gautam T, Koller A, Schwartzman ML, Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z. Role of 20-HETE, TRPC channels, and BKCa in dysregulation of pressure-induced Ca2+ signaling and myogenic constriction of cerebral arteries in aged hypertensive mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013 Dec; 305(12):H1698-708. PMID: 24097425; PMCID: PMC3882550.
    41. Warrington JP, Ashpole N, Csiszar A, Lee YW, Ungvari Z, Sonntag WE. Whole brain radiation-induced vascular cognitive impairment: mechanisms and implications. J Vasc Res. 2013; 50(6):445-57. PMID: 24107797; PMCID: PMC4309372.
    42. Gardner AW, Parker DE, Montgomery PS, Sosnowska D, Casanegra AI, Esponda OL, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A, Sonntag WE. Impaired vascular endothelial growth factor A and inflammation in patients with peripheral artery disease. Angiology. 2014 Sep; 65(8):683-90. PMID: 24006146; PMCID: PMC4043949.
    43. Csiszar A, Tucsek Z, Toth P, Sosnowska D, Gautam T, Koller A, Deak F, Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z. Synergistic effects of hypertension and aging on cognitive function and hippocampal expression of genes involved in ß-amyloid generation and Alzheimer's disease. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013 Oct 15; 305(8):H1120-30. PMID: 23955715; PMCID: PMC3798788.
    44. Toth P, Tucsek Z, Sosnowska D, Gautam T, Mitschelen M, Tarantini S, Deak F, Koller A, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z. Age-related autoregulatory dysfunction and cerebromicrovascular injury in mice with angiotensin II-induced hypertension. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2013 Nov; 33(11):1732-42. PMID: 23942363; PMCID: PMC3824186.
    45. Sonntag WE, Deak F, Ashpole N, Toth P, Csiszar A, Freeman W, Ungvari Z. Insulin-like growth factor-1 in CNS and cerebrovascular aging. Front Aging Neurosci. 2013; 5:27. PMID: 23847531; PMCID: PMC3698444.
    46. Ungvari Z, Podlutsky A, Sosnowska D, Tucsek Z, Toth P, Deak F, Gautam T, Csiszar A, Sonntag WE. Ionizing radiation promotes the acquisition of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype and impairs angiogenic capacity in cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells: role of increased DNA damage and decreased DNA repair capacity in microvascular radiosensitivity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Dec; 68(12):1443-57. PMID: 23689827; PMCID: PMC3814240.
    47. Toth P, Csiszar A, Sosnowska D, Tucsek Z, Cseplo P, Springo Z, Tarantini S, Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z, Koller A. Treatment with the cytochrome P450 ?-hydroxylase inhibitor HET0016 attenuates cerebrovascular inflammation, oxidative stress and improves vasomotor function in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2013 Apr; 168(8):1878-88. PMID: 23194285; PMCID: PMC3623058.
    48. VanGuilder Starkey HD, Bixler GV, Sonntag WE, Freeman WM. Expression of NgR1-antagonizing proteins decreases with aging and cognitive decline in rat hippocampus. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2013 May; 33(4):483-8. PMID: 23525710; PMCID: PMC3651369.
    49. VanGuilder Starkey HD, Sonntag WE, Freeman WM. Increased hippocampal NgR1 signaling machinery in aged rats with deficits of spatial cognition. Eur J Neurosci. 2013 May; 37(10):1643-58. PMID: 23438185; PMCID: PMC3660548.
    50. Ungvari Z, Tucsek Z, Sosnowska D, Toth P, Gautam T, Podlutsky A, Csiszar A, Losonczy G, Valcarcel-Ares MN, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A. Aging-induced dysregulation of dicer1-dependent microRNA expression impairs angiogenic capacity of rat cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Aug; 68(8):877-91. PMID: 23239824; PMCID: PMC3712357.
    51. Bailey-Downs LC, Tucsek Z, Toth P, Sosnowska D, Gautam T, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z. Aging exacerbates obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in perivascular adipose tissue in mice: a paracrine mechanism contributing to vascular redox dysregulation and inflammation. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Jul; 68(7):780-92. PMID: 23213032; PMCID: PMC3674713.
    52. Tucsek Z, Gautam T, Sonntag WE, Toth P, Saito H, Salomao R, Szabo C, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z. Aging exacerbates microvascular endothelial damage induced by circulating factors present in the serum of septic patients. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Jun; 68(6):652-60. PMID: 23183901; PMCID: PMC3660118.
    53. Ungvari Z, Sosnowska D, Mason JB, Gruber H, Lee SW, Schwartz TS, Brown MK, Storm NJ, Fortney K, Sowa J, Byrne AB, Kurz T, Levy E, Sonntag WE, Austad SN, Csiszar A, Ridgway I. Resistance to genotoxic stresses in Arctica islandica, the longest living noncolonial animal: is extreme longevity associated with a multistress resistance phenotype? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 May; 68(5):521-9. PMID: 23051979; PMCID: PMC3623481.
    54. Ungvari Z, Csiszar A, Sosnowska D, Philipp EE, Campbell CM, McQuary PR, Chow TT, Coelho M, Didier ES, Gelino S, Holmbeck MA, Kim I, Levy E, Sonntag WE, Whitby PW, Austad SN, Ridgway I. Testing predictions of the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging using a novel invertebrate model of longevity: the giant clam (Tridacna derasa). J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Apr; 68(4):359-67. PMID: 22904097; PMCID: PMC3732095.
    55. Csiszar A, Sosnowska D, Tucsek Z, Gautam T, Toth P, Losonczy G, Colman RJ, Weindruch R, Anderson RM, Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z. Circulating factors induced by caloric restriction in the nonhuman primate Macaca mulatta activate angiogenic processes in endothelial cells. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Mar; 68(3):235-49. PMID: 22904098; PMCID: PMC3605906.
    56. Lee YW, Cho HJ, Lee WH, Sonntag WE. Whole brain radiation-induced cognitive impairment: pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic targets. Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2012 Jul; 20(4):357-70. PMID: 24009822; PMCID: PMC3762274.
    57. Tanaka M, Jaruga P, Küpfer PA, Leumann CJ, Dizdaroglu M, Sonntag WE, Boon Chock P. RNA oxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c leads to its depurination and cross-linking, which may facilitate cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Aug 15; 53(4):854-62. PMID: 22683603; PMCID: PMC4319184.
    58. VanGuilder Starkey HD, Van Kirk CA, Bixler GV, Imperio CG, Kale VP, Serfass JM, Farley JA, Yan H, Warrington JP, Han S, Mitschelen M, Sonntag WE, Freeman WM. Neuroglial expression of the MHCI pathway and PirB receptor is upregulated in the hippocampus with advanced aging. J Mol Neurosci. 2012 Sep; 48(1):111-26. PMID: 22562814; PMCID: PMC3414657.
    59. Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, deCabo R, Ferrucci L, Ungvari Z. Diverse roles of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in mammalian aging: progress and controversies. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Jun; 67(6):587-98. PMID: 22522510; PMCID: PMC3348498.
    60. Deak F, Sonntag WE. Aging, synaptic dysfunction, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Jun; 67(6):611-25. PMID: 22503992; PMCID: PMC3348499.
    61. Lee WH, Warrington JP, Sonntag WE, Lee YW. Irradiation alters MMP-2/TIMP-2 system and collagen type IV degradation in brain. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012 Apr 01; 82(5):1559-66. PMID: 22429332; PMCID: PMC3309226.
    62. Vanguilder HD, Bixler GV, Sonntag WE, Freeman WM. Hippocampal expression of myelin-associated inhibitors is induced with age-related cognitive decline and correlates with deficits of spatial learning and memory. J Neurochem. 2012 Apr; 121(1):77-98. PMID: 22269040; PMCID: PMC3341628.
    63. Warrington JP, Csiszar A, Mitschelen M, Lee YW, Sonntag WE. Whole brain radiation-induced impairments in learning and memory are time-sensitive and reversible by systemic hypoxia. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e30444. PMID: 22279591; PMCID: PMC3261195.
    64. Csiszar A, Sosnowska D, Wang M, Lakatta EG, Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z. Age-associated proinflammatory secretory phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells from the non-human primate Macaca mulatta: reversal by resveratrol treatment. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Aug; 67(8):811-20. PMID: 22219513; PMCID: PMC3536544.
    65. Valcarcel-Ares MN, Gautam T, Warrington JP, Bailey-Downs L, Sosnowska D, de Cabo R, Losonczy G, Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A. Disruption of Nrf2 signaling impairs angiogenic capacity of endothelial cells: implications for microvascular aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Aug; 67(8):821-9. PMID: 22219515; PMCID: PMC3403863.
    66. Csiszar A, Podlutsky A, Podlutskaya N, Sonntag WE, Merlin SZ, Philipp EE, Doyle K, Davila A, Recchia FA, Ballabh P, Pinto JT, Ungvari Z. Testing the oxidative stress hypothesis of aging in primate fibroblasts: is there a correlation between species longevity and cellular ROS production? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Aug; 67(8):841-52. PMID: 22219516; PMCID: PMC3403864.
    67. Bailey-Downs LC, Sosnowska D, Toth P, Mitschelen M, Gautam T, Henthorn JC, Ballabh P, Koller A, Farley JA, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A, Ungvari Z. Growth hormone and IGF-1 deficiency exacerbate high-fat diet-induced endothelial impairment in obese Lewis dwarf rats: implications for vascular aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Jun; 67(6):553-64. PMID: 22080499; PMCID: PMC3348491.
    68. Nieves-Martinez E, Haynes K, Childers SR, Sonntag WE, Nicolle MM. Muscarinic receptor/G-protein coupling is reduced in the dorsomedial striatum of cognitively impaired aged rats. Behav Brain Res. 2012 Feb 01; 227(1):258-64. PMID: 22085876; PMCID: PMC3253526.
    69. Bailey-Downs LC, Mitschelen M, Sosnowska D, Toth P, Pinto JT, Ballabh P, Valcarcel-Ares MN, Farley J, Koller A, Henthorn JC, Bass C, Sonntag WE, Ungvari Z, Csiszar A. Liver-specific knockdown of IGF-1 decreases vascular oxidative stress resistance by impairing the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response: a novel model of vascular aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Apr; 67(4):313-29. PMID: 22021391; PMCID: PMC3309870.
    70. Molina DP, Ariwodola OJ, Linville C, Sonntag WE, Weiner JL, Brunso-Bechtold JK, Adams MM. Growth hormone modulates hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity in old rats. Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Sep; 33(9):1938-49. PMID: 22015312; PMCID: PMC3266474.
    71. VanGuilder HD, Bixler GV, Brucklacher RM, Farley JA, Yan H, Warrington JP, Sonntag WE, Freeman WM. Concurrent hippocampal induction of MHC II pathway components and glial activation with advanced aging is not correlated with cognitive impairment. J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Oct 11; 8:138. PMID: 21989322; PMCID: PMC3216278.
    72. Lee WH, Cho HJ, Sonntag WE, Lee YW. Radiation attenuates physiological angiogenesis by differential expression of VEGF, Ang-1, tie-2 and Ang-2 in rat brain. Radiat Res. 2011 Dec; 176(6):753-60. PMID: 21962003; PMCID: PMC3250229.
    73. Yan H, Mitschelen M, Bixler GV, Brucklacher RM, Farley JA, Han S, Freeman WM, Sonntag WE. Circulating IGF1 regulates hippocampal IGF1 levels and brain gene expression during adolescence. J Endocrinol. 2011 Oct; 211(1):27-37. PMID: 21750148; PMCID: PMC3395434.
    74. Ungvari Z, Sonntag WE, de Cabo R, Baur JA, Csiszar A. Mitochondrial protection by resveratrol. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2011 Jul; 39(3):128-32. PMID: 21383627; PMCID: PMC3123408.
    75. Tanaka M, Han S, Küpfer PA, Leumann CJ, Sonntag WE. Quantification of oxidized levels of specific RNA species using an aldehyde reactive probe. Anal Biochem. 2011 Oct 01; 417(1):142-8. PMID: 21693097; PMCID: PMC3143300.
    76. Ungvari Z, Bailey-Downs L, Gautam T, Sosnowska D, Wang M, Monticone RE, Telljohann R, Pinto JT, de Cabo R, Sonntag WE, Lakatta EG, Csiszar A. Age-associated vascular oxidative stress, Nrf2 dysfunction, and NF-{kappa}B activation in the nonhuman primate Macaca mulatta. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 Aug; 66(8):866-75. PMID: 21622983; PMCID: PMC3148762.
    77. Ungvari Z, Bailey-Downs L, Sosnowska D, Gautam T, Koncz P, Losonczy G, Ballabh P, de Cabo R, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A. Vascular oxidative stress in aging: a homeostatic failure due to dysregulation of NRF2-mediated antioxidant response. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 Aug; 301(2):H363-72. PMID: 21602469; PMCID: PMC3154665.
    78. Van Kirk CA, VanGuilder HD, Young M, Farley JA, Sonntag WE, Freeman WM. Age-related alterations in retinal neurovascular and inflammatory transcripts. Mol Vis. 2011; 17:1261-74. PMID: 21633715; PMCID: PMC3103744.
    79. Ungvari Z, Ridgway I, Philipp EE, Campbell CM, McQuary P, Chow T, Coelho M, Didier ES, Gelino S, Holmbeck MA, Kim I, Levy E, Sosnowska D, Sonntag WE, Austad SN, Csiszar A. Extreme longevity is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress in Arctica islandica, the longest-living non-colonial animal. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 Jul; 66(7):741-50. PMID: 21486920; PMCID: PMC3143345.
    80. VanGuilder HD, Farley JA, Yan H, Van Kirk CA, Mitschelen M, Sonntag WE, Freeman WM. Hippocampal dysregulation of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins with age-related cognitive decline. Neurobiol Dis. 2011 Jul; 43(1):201-12. PMID: 21440628; PMCID: PMC3096728.
    81. Ungvari Z, Sosnowska D, Podlutsky A, Koncz P, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A. Free radical production, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress response signatures in fibroblasts from Lewis dwarf rats: effects of life span-extending peripubertal GH treatment. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 May; 66(5):501-10. PMID: 21350246; PMCID: PMC3107025.
    82. Ungvari Z, Bailey-Downs L, Gautam T, Jimenez R, Losonczy G, Zhang C, Ballabh P, Recchia FA, Wilkerson DC, Sonntag WE, Pearson K, de Cabo R, Csiszar A. Adaptive induction of NF-E2-related factor-2-driven antioxidant genes in endothelial cells in response to hyperglycemia. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 Apr; 300(4):H1133-40. PMID: 21217061; PMCID: PMC3075025.
    83. Warrington JP, Csiszar A, Johnson DA, Herman TS, Ahmad S, Lee YW, Sonntag WE. Cerebral microvascular rarefaction induced by whole brain radiation is reversible by systemic hypoxia in mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 Mar; 300(3):H736-44. PMID: 21186274; PMCID: PMC3064301.
    84. Tanaka M, Han S, Song H, Küpfer PA, Leumann CJ, Sonntag WE. An assay for RNA oxidation induced abasic sites using the Aldehyde Reactive Probe. Free Radic Res. 2011 Feb; 45(2):237-47. PMID: 21062214; PMCID: PMC3058411.
    85. Zuo Z, Lei H, Wang X, Wang Y, Sonntag W, Sun Z. Aging-related kidney damage is associated with a decrease in klotho expression and an increase in superoxide production. Age (Dordr). 2011 Sep; 33(3):261-74. PMID: 20830528; PMCID: PMC3168600.
    86. Ungvari Z, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A. Mitochondria and aging in the vascular system. J Mol Med (Berl). 2010 Oct; 88(10):1021-7. PMID: 20714704; PMCID: PMC3045746.
    87. Ungvari Z, Gautam T, Koncz P, Henthorn JC, Pinto JT, Ballabh P, Yan H, Mitschelen M, Farley J, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A. Vasoprotective effects of life span-extending peripubertal GH replacement in Lewis dwarf rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010 Nov; 65(11):1145-56. PMID: 20713653; PMCID: PMC2954243.
    88. Ungvari Z, Kaley G, de Cabo R, Sonntag WE, Csiszar A. Mechanisms of vascular aging: new perspectives. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010 Oct; 65(10):1028-41. PMID: 20576649; PMCID: PMC2950814.
    89. Zhao W, Aboushwareb T, Turner C, Mathis C, Bennett C, Sonntag WE, Andersson KE, Christ G. Impaired bladder function in aging male rats. J Urol. 2010 Jul; 184(1):378-85. PMID: 20488483; PMCID: PMC2963021.
    90. Ungvari Z, Bagi Z, Feher A, Recchia FA, Sonntag WE, Pearson K, de Cabo R, Csiszar A. Resveratrol confers endothelial protection via activation of the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010 Jul; 299(1):H18-24. PMID: 20418481; PMCID: PMC2904129.
    91. Lee WH, Sonntag WE, Lee YW. Aging attenuates radiation-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in rat brain. Neurosci Lett. 2010 May 31; 476(2):89-93. PMID: 20385203; PMCID: PMC2875775.
    92. VanGuilder HD, Yan H, Farley JA, Sonntag WE, Freeman WM. Aging alters the expression of neurotransmission-regulating proteins in the hippocampal synaptoproteome. J Neurochem. 2010 Jun; 113(6):1577-88. PMID: 20374424; PMCID: PMC3010414.
    93. Apel PJ, Ma J, Callahan M, Northam CN, Alton TB, Sonntag WE, Li Z. Effect of locally delivered IGF-1 on nerve regeneration during aging: an experimental study in rats. Muscle Nerve. 2010 Mar; 41(3):335-41. PMID: 19802878; PMCID: PMC3045758.
    94. Lee WH, Sonntag WE, Mitschelen M, Yan H, Lee YW. Irradiation induces regionally specific alterations in pro-inflammatory environments in rat brain. Int J Radiat Biol. 2010 Feb; 86(2):132-44. PMID: 20148699; PMCID: PMC2827151.
    95. Hua K, Forbes ME, Lichtenwalner RJ, Sonntag WE, Riddle DR. Adult-onset deficiency in growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I alters oligodendrocyte turnover in the corpus callosum. Glia. 2009 Aug 01; 57(10):1062-71. PMID: 19115393; PMCID: PMC2696576.
    96. Adams MM, Elizabeth Forbes M, Constance Linville M, Riddle DR, Sonntag WE, Brunso-Bechtold JK. Stability of local brain levels of insulin-like growth factor-I in two well-characterized models of decreased plasma IGF-I. Growth Factors. 2009 Jun; 27(3):181-8. PMID: 19343576; PMCID: PMC3085503.
    97. Apel PJ, Alton T, Northam C, Ma J, Callahan M, Sonntag WE, Li Z. How age impairs the response of the neuromuscular junction to nerve transection and repair: An experimental study in rats. J Orthop Res. 2009 Mar; 27(3):385-93. PMID: 18853430; PMCID: PMC2766619.
    98. Carnes BA, Staats DO, Sonntag WE. Does senescence give rise to disease? Mech Ageing Dev. 2008 Dec; 129(12):693-9. PMID: 18977242; PMCID: PMC3045748.
    99. Groban L, Jobe H, Lin M, Houle T, Kitzman DA, Sonntag W. Effects of short-term treadmill exercise training or growth hormone supplementation on diastolic function and exercise tolerance in old rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Sep; 63(9):911-20. PMID: 18840795; PMCID: PMC2821700.
    100. Adams MM, Shi L, Linville MC, Forbes ME, Long AB, Bennett C, Newton IG, Carter CS, Sonntag WE, Riddle DR, Brunso-Bechtold JK. Caloric restriction and age affect synaptic proteins in hippocampal CA3 and spatial learning ability. Exp Neurol. 2008 May; 211(1):141-9. PMID: 18342310; PMCID: PMC2805131.
    101. Ingraham JP, Forbes ME, Riddle DR, Sonntag WE. Aging reduces hypoxia-induced microvascular growth in the rodent hippocampus. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Jan; 63(1):12-20. PMID: 18245756.
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    102. You T, Sonntag WE, Leng X, Carter CS. Lifelong caloric restriction and interleukin-6 secretion from adipose tissue: effects on physical performance decline in aged rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007 Oct; 62(10):1082-7. PMID: 17921419.
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    103. Braverman ER, Chen TJ, Prihoda TJ, Sonntag W, Meshkin B, Downs BW, Mengucci JF, Blum SH, Notaro A, Arcuri V, Varshavskiy M, Blum K. Plasma growth hormones, P300 event-related potential and test of variables of attention (TOVA) are important neuroendocrinological predictors of early cognitive decline in a clinical setting: evidence supported by structural equation modeling (SEM) parameter estimates. Age (Dordr). 2007 Sep; 29(2-3):55-67. PMID: 19424831; PMCID: PMC2267660.
    104. Ekenstedt KJ, Sonntag WE, Loeser RF, Lindgren BR, Carlson CS. Effects of chronic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency on osteoarthritis severity in rat knee joints. Arthritis Rheum. 2006 Dec; 54(12):3850-8. PMID: 17133593.
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    105. Shi L, Adams MM, Long A, Carter CC, Bennett C, Sonntag WE, Nicolle MM, Robbins M, D'Agostino R, Brunso-Bechtold JK. Spatial learning and memory deficits after whole-brain irradiation are associated with changes in NMDA receptor subunits in the hippocampus. Radiat Res. 2006 Dec; 166(6):892-9. PMID: 17149974.
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    106. Sonntag WE, Bennett C, Ingram R, Donahue A, Ingraham J, Chen H, Moore T, Brunso-Bechtold JK, Riddle D. Growth hormone and IGF-I modulate local cerebral glucose utilization and ATP levels in a model of adult-onset growth hormone deficiency. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Sep; 291(3):E604-10. PMID: 16912061.
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    107. Lichtenwalner RJ, Forbes ME, Sonntag WE, Riddle DR. Adult-onset deficiency in growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I decreases survival of dentate granule neurons: insights into the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. J Neurosci Res. 2006 Feb 01; 83(2):199-210. PMID: 16385581.
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    108. Groban L, Pailes NA, Bennett CD, Carter CS, Chappell MC, Kitzman DW, Sonntag WE. Growth hormone replacement attenuates diastolic dysfunction and cardiac angiotensin II expression in senescent rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006 Jan; 61(1):28-35. PMID: 16456192.
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    109. Donahue AN, Aschner M, Lash LH, Syversen T, Sonntag WE. Growth hormone administration to aged animals reduces disulfide glutathione levels in hippocampus. Mech Ageing Dev. 2006 Jan; 127(1):57-63. PMID: 16243379.
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    110. Grill JD, Sonntag WE, Riddle DR. Dendritic stability in a model of adult-onset IGF-I deficiency. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2005 Oct; 15(5):337-48. PMID: 16143551.
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    111. Kasper SO, Carter CS, Ferrario CM, Ganten D, Ferder LF, Sonntag WE, Gallagher PE, Diz DI. Growth, metabolism, and blood pressure disturbances during aging in transgenic rats with altered brain renin-angiotensin systems. Physiol Genomics. 2005 Nov 17; 23(3):311-7. PMID: 16131528.
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    112. Ramsey MM, Adams MM, Ariwodola OJ, Sonntag WE, Weiner JL. Functional characterization of des-IGF-1 action at excitatory synapses in the CA1 region of rat hippocampus. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Jul; 94(1):247-54. PMID: 15985695.
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    113. Sonntag WE, Ramsey M, Carter CS. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their influence on cognitive aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2005 May; 4(2):195-212. PMID: 16024298.
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    114. Sonntag WE, Carter CS, Ikeno Y, Ekenstedt K, Carlson CS, Loeser RF, Chakrabarty S, Lee S, Bennett C, Ingram R, Moore T, Ramsey M. Adult-onset growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I deficiency reduces neoplastic disease, modifies age-related pathology, and increases life span. Endocrinology. 2005 Jul; 146(7):2920-32. PMID: 15790724.
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    115. Shi L, Linville MC, Tucker EW, Sonntag WE, Brunso-Bechtold JK. Differential effects of aging and insulin-like growth factor-1 on synapses in CA1 of rat hippocampus. Cereb Cortex. 2005 May; 15(5):571-7. PMID: 15319312.
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    116. Butler RN, Sprott R, Warner H, Bland J, Feuers R, Forster M, Fillit H, Harman SM, Hewitt M, Hyman M, Johnson K, Kligman E, McClearn G, Nelson J, Richardson A, Sonntag W, Weindruch R, Wolf N. Biomarkers of aging: from primitive organisms to humans. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004 Jun; 59(6):B560-7. PMID: 15215265.
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    117. Carter CS, Cesari M, Ambrosius WT, Hu N, Diz D, Oden S, Sonntag WE, Pahor M. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, body composition, and physical performance in aged rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2004 May; 59(5):416-23. PMID: 15123750.
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    118. Riddle DR, Sonntag WE, Lichtenwalner RJ. Microvascular plasticity in aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2003 Apr; 2(2):149-68. PMID: 12605958.
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    119. Sonntag WE, Ramsey MM. Of worms, flies, dwarfs, and things that go bump in the night. Sci Aging Knowledge Environ. 2002 Oct 30; 2002(43):pe17. PMID: 14603010.
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    120. Ramsey MM, Ingram RL, Cashion AB, Ng AH, Cline JM, Parlow AF, Sonntag WE. Growth hormone-deficient dwarf animals are resistant to dimethylbenzanthracine (DMBA)-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Endocrinology. 2002 Oct; 143(10):4139-42. PMID: 12239127.
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    121. Carter CS, Ramsey MM, Sonntag WE. A critical analysis of the role of growth hormone and IGF-1 in aging and lifespan. Trends Genet. 2002 Jun; 18(6):295-301. PMID: 12044358.
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    122. Carter CS, Ramsey MM, Ingram RL, Cashion AB, Cefalu WT, Wang ZQ, Sonntag WE. Models of growth hormone and IGF-1 deficiency: applications to studies of aging processes and life-span determination. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002 May; 57(5):B177-88. PMID: 11983714.
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    123. Carter CS, Sonntag WE, Onder G, Pahor M. Physical performance and longevity in aged rats. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002 May; 57(5):B193-7. PMID: 11983716.
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    124. Khan AS, Sane DC, Wannenburg T, Sonntag WE. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and the aging cardiovascular system. Cardiovasc Res. 2002 Apr; 54(1):25-35. PMID: 12062358.
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    125. Shi L, Poe BH, Constance Linville M, Sonntag WE, Brunso-Bechtold JK. Caloric restricted male rats demonstrate fewer synapses in layer 2 of sensorimotor cortex. Brain Res. 2002 Mar 22; 931(1):32-40. PMID: 11897086.
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    126. Poe BH, Linville MC, Sonntag WE, Brunso-Bechtold JK. Insulin-like growth factor-1 does not ameliorate the age-related decline in presumptive inhibitory synapses in layer 2 of rat sensorimotor cortex. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2002 Jan; 26(1):97-102. PMID: 11853126.
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