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Gillian M Air

TitleGeorge L Cross Research Professor & Interim Chair
InstitutionUniversity of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
DepartmentBiochemistry/Molecular Biology
Address1000 Stanton L Young Blvd
Oklahoma City OK 73117-1295
Phone405/271-2085
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    My doctoral training was in protein chemistry, in the laboratory of E.O.P. Thompson. As a postdoc then staff member at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, I determined protein sequences of the coat proteins of bacteriophage FX-174 to compare with the DNA sequences beginning to emerge from Fred Sanger’s laboratory, then I moved into DNA sequencing. Apparent conflicts in gene mapping data turned out to be perfectly correct when we discovered that some FX-174 genes overlap. Armed with technology to sequence nucleic acids, I started a project in a long collaboration with Robert Webster (St. Jude’s Hospital) and Graeme Laver (Australian National University) to understand the basis of antigenic variation in influenza viruses. We mapped antigenic sites on both hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). The crystal structure of neuraminidase led to studies on NA activity mechanism and design of NA inhibitors. Our interest in understanding the role of NA in the virus life cycle led to studies on HA binding to and NA release from sialylated glycans, and the observation that these are not always the same specificity. In turn this project led us into studies on the glycobiology of influenza. We showed that H3N2 viruses from 1968 to 2012 changed their glycan-binding specificity as they underwent antigenic drift, and that successful infection requires factors in addition to an appropriate receptor. Our most recent studies on antigenic variation focused on the human response to vaccination. We developed a capture ELISA to distinguish antibodies that bind native proteins from those that only bind denatured antigens, and showed that lupus patients have a wide spectrum of vaccine response, only slightly lower than that of control subjects. We showed that serum antibodies of vaccinated subjects are primarily directed against an immunodominant antigenic site and that post-vaccination serum could be used to select virus mutants that resembled those subsequently arising in nature.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    T32AI007150     (PREVELIGE, PETER E.)Jul 1, 1978 - Aug 31, 2009
    NIH/NIAID
    Basic Mechanisms in Virology
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    R21AI018203     (AIR, GILLIAN M.)Apr 1, 1982 - Feb 28, 2003
    NIH/NIAID
    Glycoconjugates in viral pathogenesis
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AI018203     (AIR, GILLIAN M.)Apr 1, 1982 - Nov 30, 2008
    NIH/NIAID
    Glycoconjugates in viral pathogenesis
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AI019084     (AIR, GILLIAN M.)Apr 1, 1983 - Mar 31, 1991
    NIH/NIAID
    STRUCTURE OF ANTIGENIC SITES ON INFLUENZA VIRUS PROTEINS
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R37AI019084     (AIR, GILLIAN M.)Apr 1, 1983 - Mar 31, 2002
    NIH/NIAID
    STRUCTURE OF ANTIGENIC SITES ON INFLUENZA VIRUS PROTEINS
    Role: Principal Investigator

    T32GM008111     (YODER, BRADLEY K.)Sep 1, 1984 - Jun 30, 2018
    NIH/NIGMS
    Predoctoral Training in Cell and Molecular Biology
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    S10RR004064     (AIR, GILLIAN M.)Feb 29, 1988 - Dec 31, 1989
    NIH/NCRR
    PROTEIN SEQUENCING &ANALYSIS EQUIPMENT
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AI026718     (AIR, GILLIAN M.)Sep 1, 1988 - Aug 31, 1994
    NIH/NIAID
    STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITY OF INFLUENZA B NEURAMINIDASES
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R13AI027040     (AIR, GILLIAN M.)Jan 1, 1989 - Jun 30, 1990
    NIH/NIAID
    WORKSHOP ON ANTIVIRAL DESIGN USING X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R21AI050933     (AIR, GILLIAN M.)Sep 15, 2002 - Sep 14, 2003
    NIH/NIAID
    Human &mouse antibodies against influenza virus
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AI050933     (AIR, GILLIAN M.)Aug 1, 2003 - May 31, 2014
    NIH/NIAID
    Human &mouse antibodies against influenza virus
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R56AI068883     (AIR, GILLIAN M.)Jul 1, 2007 - Dec 31, 2009
    NIH/NIAID
    Regulation of Virus Capsid Assembly
    Role: Principal Investigator

    272201400026C-0-0-1     (AIR, GILLIAN)Jun 9, 2014 - Jun 8, 2015
    NIH
    CEIRS Influenza Data Processing and Coordinating Center (DPCC)
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Alymova IV, York IA, Air GM, Cipollo JF, Gulati S, Baranovich T, Kumar A, Zeng H, Gansebom S, McCullers JA. Glycosylation changes in the globular head of H3N2 influenza hemagglutinin modulate receptor binding without affecting virus virulence. Sci Rep. 2016 Oct 31; 6:36216. PMID: 27796371.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Koçer ZA, Krauss S, Zanin M, Danner A, Gulati S, Jones JC, Friedman K, Graham A, Forrest H, Seiler J, Air GM, Webster RG. Possible basis for the emergence of H1N1 viruses with pandemic potential from avian hosts. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2015 Jul; 4(7):e40. PMID: 26251829; PMCID: PMC4522614.
    3. Air GM. Influenza virus antigenicity and broadly neutralizing epitopes. Curr Opin Virol. 2015 Apr; 11:113-21. PMID: 25846699; PMCID: PMC4456283.
    4. Jia N, Barclay WS, Roberts K, Yen HL, Chan RW, Lam AK, Air G, Peiris JS, Dell A, Nicholls JM, Haslam SM. Glycomic characterization of respiratory tract tissues of ferrets: implications for its use in influenza virus infection studies. J Biol Chem. 2014 Oct 10; 289(41):28489-504. PMID: 25135641; PMCID: PMC4192499.
    5. Venkataram Prasad BV, Air GM. Editorial overview: virus-glycan interactions and pathogenesis. Curr Opin Virol. 2014 Aug; 7:v-vi. PMID: 25128970; PMCID: PMC4256938.
    6. Air GM. Influenza virus-glycan interactions. Curr Opin Virol. 2014 Aug; 7:128-33. PMID: 25061947; PMCID: PMC4149921.
    7. Gulati S, Lasanajak Y, Smith DF, Cummings RD, Air GM. Glycan array analysis of influenza H1N1 binding and release. Cancer Biomark. 2014 Jan 01; 14(1):43-53. PMID: 24643041; PMCID: PMC4161021.
    8. Gulati S, Smith DF, Cummings RD, Couch RB, Griesemer SB, St George K, Webster RG, Air GM. Human H3N2 Influenza Viruses Isolated from 1968 To 2012 Show Varying Preference for Receptor Substructures with No Apparent Consequences for Disease or Spread. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e66325. PMID: 23805213; PMCID: PMC3689742.
    9. Tappert MM, Porterfield JZ, Mehta-D'Souza P, Gulati S, Air GM. Quantitative comparison of human parainfluenza virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase receptor binding and receptor cleavage. J Virol. 2013 Aug; 87(16):8962-70. PMID: 23740997; PMCID: PMC3754076.
    10. Walther T, Karamanska R, Chan RW, Chan MC, Jia N, Air G, Hopton C, Wong MP, Dell A, Malik Peiris JS, Haslam SM, Nicholls JM. Glycomic analysis of human respiratory tract tissues and correlation with influenza virus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2013 Mar; 9(3):e1003223. PMID: 23516363; PMCID: PMC3597497.
    11. Couch RB, Decker WK, Utama B, Atmar RL, Niño D, Feng JQ, Halpert MM, Air GM. Evaluations for in vitro correlates of immunogenicity of inactivated influenza a H5, H7 and H9 vaccines in humans. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e50830. PMID: 23239987; PMCID: PMC3519816.
    12. Yu Y, Mishra S, Song X, Lasanajak Y, Bradley KC, Tappert MM, Air GM, Steinhauer DA, Halder S, Cotmore S, Tattersall P, Agbandje-McKenna M, Cummings RD, Smith DF. Functional glycomic analysis of human milk glycans reveals the presence of virus receptors and embryonic stem cell biomarkers. J Biol Chem. 2012 Dec 28; 287(53):44784-99. PMID: 23115247; PMCID: PMC3531791.
    13. Popova L, Smith K, West AH, Wilson PC, James JA, Thompson LF, Air GM. Immunodominance of antigenic site B over site A of hemagglutinin of recent H3N2 influenza viruses. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e41895. PMID: 22848649; PMCID: PMC3405050.
    14. Li Y, Silamkoti A, Kolavi G, Mou L, Gulati S, Air GM, Brouillette WJ. Pyrrolidinobenzoic acid inhibitors of influenza virus neuraminidase: the hydrophobic side chain influences type A subtype selectivity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2012 Jul 15; 20(14):4582-9. PMID: 22677529; PMCID: PMC3401542.
    15. Venkatramani L, Johnson ES, Kolavi G, Air GM, Brouillette WJ, Mooers BH. Crystal structure of a new benzoic acid inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase bound with a new tilt induced by overpacking subsite C6. BMC Struct Biol. 2012 May 06; 12:7. PMID: 22559154; PMCID: PMC3416664.
    16. Noronha JM, Liu M, Squires RB, Pickett BE, Hale BG, Air GM, Galloway SE, Takimoto T, Schmolke M, Hunt V, Klem E, García-Sastre A, McGee M, Scheuermann RH. Influenza virus sequence feature variant type analysis: evidence of a role for NS1 in influenza virus host range restriction. J Virol. 2012 May; 86(10):5857-66. PMID: 22398283; PMCID: PMC3347290.
    17. Vista ES, Crowe SR, Thompson LF, Air GM, Robertson JM, Guthridge JM, James JA. Influenza vaccination can induce new-onset anticardiolipins but not ß2-glycoprotein-I antibodies among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2012 Feb; 21(2):168-74. PMID: 22235049; PMCID: PMC3268677.
    18. Heimburg-Molinaro J, Tappert M, Song X, Lasanajak Y, Air G, Smith DF, Cummings RD. Probing virus-glycan interactions using glycan microarrays. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 808:251-67. PMID: 22057531; PMCID: PMC4930331.
    19. Nguyen AT, Feasley CL, Jackson KW, Nitz TJ, Salzwedel K, Air GM, Sakalian M. The prototype HIV-1 maturation inhibitor, bevirimat, binds to the CA-SP1 cleavage site in immature Gag particles. Retrovirology. 2011 Dec 07; 8:101. PMID: 22151792; PMCID: PMC3267693.
    20. Air GM. Influenza neuraminidase. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2012 Jul; 6(4):245-56. PMID: 22085243; PMCID: PMC3290697.
    21. Tappert MM, Smith DF, Air GM. Fixation of oligosaccharides to a surface may increase the susceptibility to human parainfluenza virus 1, 2, or 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase. J Virol. 2011 Dec; 85(23):12146-59. PMID: 21917945; PMCID: PMC3209406.
    22. Crowe SR, Merrill JT, Vista ES, Dedeke AB, Thompson DM, Stewart S, Guthridge JM, Niewold TB, Franek BS, Air GM, Thompson LF, James JA. Influenza vaccination responses in human systemic lupus erythematosus: impact of clinical and demographic features. Arthritis Rheum. 2011 Aug; 63(8):2396-406. PMID: 21598235; PMCID: PMC3149742.
    23. Song X, Yu H, Chen X, Lasanajak Y, Tappert MM, Air GM, Tiwari VK, Cao H, Chokhawala HA, Zheng H, Cummings RD, Smith DF. A sialylated glycan microarray reveals novel interactions of modified sialic acids with proteins and viruses. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 09; 286(36):31610-22. PMID: 21757734; PMCID: PMC3173124.
    24. Air GM, Feng J, Chen T, Joachims ML, James JA, Thompson LF. Individual antibody and T cell responses to vaccination and infection with the 2009 pandemic swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus. J Clin Immunol. 2011 Oct; 31(5):900-12. PMID: 21732013; PMCID: PMC3197711.
    25. Feng J, Gulati U, Zhang X, Keitel WA, Thompson DM, James JA, Thompson LF, Air GM. Antibody quantity versus quality after influenza vaccination. Vaccine. 2009 Oct 23; 27(45):6358-62. PMID: 19840673; PMCID: PMC2765411.
    26. Gulati S, Smith DF, Air GM. Deletions of neuraminidase and resistance to oseltamivir may be a consequence of restricted receptor specificity in recent H3N2 influenza viruses. Virol J. 2009 Feb 14; 6:22. PMID: 19216793; PMCID: PMC2649058.
    27. Wahl A, Schafer F, Bardet W, Buchli R, Air GM, Hildebrand WH. HLA class I molecules consistently present internal influenza epitopes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jan 13; 106(2):540-5. PMID: 19122146; PMCID: PMC2626739.
    28. Wrammert J, Smith K, Miller J, Langley WA, Kokko K, Larsen C, Zheng NY, Mays I, Garman L, Helms C, James J, Air GM, Capra JD, Ahmed R, Wilson PC. Rapid cloning of high-affinity human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus. Nature. 2008 May 29; 453(7195):667-71. PMID: 18449194; PMCID: PMC2515609.
    29. Nicholls JM, Chan RW, Russell RJ, Air GM, Peiris JS. Evolving complexities of influenza virus and its receptors. Trends Microbiol. 2008 Apr; 16(4):149-57. PMID: 18375125.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Gulati U, Keitel WA, Air GM. Increased antibodies against unfolded viral antigens in the elderly after influenza vaccination. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2007 Jul; 1(4):147-56. PMID: 18458742.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Amonsen M, Smith DF, Cummings RD, Air GM. Human parainfluenza viruses hPIV1 and hPIV3 bind oligosaccharides with alpha2-3-linked sialic acids that are distinct from those bound by H5 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. J Virol. 2007 Aug; 81(15):8341-5. PMID: 17522226; PMCID: PMC1951310.
    32. Kumari K, Gulati S, Smith DF, Gulati U, Cummings RD, Air GM. Receptor binding specificity of recent human H3N2 influenza viruses. Virol J. 2007 May 09; 4:42. PMID: 17490484; PMCID: PMC1876801.
    33. Venkatramani L, Bochkareva E, Lee JT, Gulati U, Graeme Laver W, Bochkarev A, Air GM. An epidemiologically significant epitope of a 1998 human influenza virus neuraminidase forms a highly hydrated interface in the NA-antibody complex. J Mol Biol. 2006 Feb 24; 356(3):651-63. PMID: 16384583.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Lee JT, Air GM. Interaction between a 1998 human influenza virus N2 neuraminidase and monoclonal antibody Mem5. Virology. 2006 Feb 20; 345(2):424-33. PMID: 16297424.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Gulati U, Wu W, Gulati S, Kumari K, Waner JL, Air GM. Mismatched hemagglutinin and neuraminidase specificities in recent human H3N2 influenza viruses. Virology. 2005 Aug 15; 339(1):12-20. PMID: 15950996.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Gulati U, Kumari K, Wu W, Keitel WA, Air GM. Amount and avidity of serum antibodies against native glycoproteins and denatured virus after repeated influenza whole-virus vaccination. Vaccine. 2005 Feb 03; 23(11):1414-25. PMID: 15661391.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Wu W, Air GM. Binding of influenza viruses to sialic acids: reassortant viruses with A/NWS/33 hemagglutinin bind to alpha2,8-linked sialic acid. Virology. 2004 Aug 01; 325(2):340-50. PMID: 15246273.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Lommer BS, Ali SM, Bajpai SN, Brouillette WJ, Air GM, Luo M. A benzoic acid inhibitor induces a novel conformational change in the active site of Influenza B virus neuraminidase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004 Jun; 60(Pt 6):1017-23. PMID: 15159560.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Brouillette WJ, Bajpai SN, Ali SM, Velu SE, Atigadda VR, Lommer BS, Finley JB, Luo M, Air GM. Pyrrolidinobenzoic acid inhibitors of influenza virus neuraminidase: modifications of essential pyrrolidinone ring substituents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003 Jul 03; 11(13):2739-49. PMID: 12788348.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Gulati U, Hwang CC, Venkatramani L, Gulati S, Stray SJ, Lee JT, Laver WG, Bochkarev A, Zlotnick A, Air GM. Antibody epitopes on the neuraminidase of a recent H3N2 influenza virus (A/Memphis/31/98). J Virol. 2002 Dec; 76(23):12274-80. PMID: 12414967; PMCID: PMC136895.
    41. Lee JT, Air GM. Contacts between influenza virus N9 neuraminidase and monoclonal antibody NC10. Virology. 2002 Sep 01; 300(2):255-68. PMID: 12350356.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Stray SJ, Air GM. Apoptosis by influenza viruses correlates with efficiency of viral mRNA synthesis. Virus Res. 2001 Sep; 77(1):3-17. PMID: 11451482.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Stray SJ, Cummings RD, Air GM. Influenza virus infection of desialylated cells. Glycobiology. 2000 Jul; 10(7):649-58. PMID: 10910970.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Ghate AA, Air GM. Influenza type B neuraminidase can replace the function of type A neuraminidase. Virology. 1999 Nov 25; 264(2):265-77. PMID: 10562491.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Finley JB, Atigadda VR, Duarte F, Zhao JJ, Brouillette WJ, Air GM, Luo M. Novel aromatic inhibitors of influenza virus neuraminidase make selective interactions with conserved residues and water molecules in the active site. J Mol Biol. 1999 Nov 12; 293(5):1107-19. PMID: 10547289.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Atigadda VR, Brouillette WJ, Duarte F, Babu YS, Bantia S, Chand P, Chu N, Montgomery JA, Walsh DA, Sudbeck E, Finley J, Air GM, Luo M, Laver GW. Hydrophobic benzoic acids as inhibitors of influenza neuraminidase. Bioorg Med Chem. 1999 Nov; 7(11):2487-97. PMID: 10632058.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Brouillette WJ, Atigadda VR, Luo M, Air GM, Babu YS, Bantia S. Design of benzoic acid inhibitors of influenza neuraminidase containing a cyclic substitution for the N-acetyl grouping. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 1999 Jul 19; 9(14):1901-6. PMID: 10450950.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Atigadda VR, Brouillette WJ, Duarte F, Ali SM, Babu YS, Bantia S, Chand P, Chu N, Montgomery JA, Walsh DA, Sudbeck EA, Finley J, Luo M, Air GM, Laver GW. Potent inhibition of influenza sialidase by a benzoic acid containing a 2-pyrrolidinone substituent. J Med Chem. 1999 Jul 01; 42(13):2332-43. PMID: 10395473.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Air GM, Ghate AA, Stray SJ. Influenza neuraminidase as target for antivirals. Adv Virus Res. 1999; 54:375-402. PMID: 10547680.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Ghate AA, Air GM. Site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues of influenza virus neuraminidase as an aid to drug design. Eur J Biochem. 1998 Dec 01; 258(2):320-31. PMID: 9874196.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Pruett PS, Air GM. Critical interactions in binding antibody NC41 to influenza N9 neuraminidase: amino acid contacts on the antibody heavy chain. Biochemistry. 1998 Jul 28; 37(30):10660-70. PMID: 9692956.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Bantia S, Ghate AA, Ananth SL, Babu YS, Air GM, Walsh GM. Generation and characterization of a mutant of influenza A virus selected with the neuraminidase inhibitor BCX-140. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998 Apr; 42(4):801-7. PMID: 9559786; PMCID: PMC105545.
    53. Luo M, Air GM, Brouillette WJ. Design of aromatic inhibitors of influenza virus neuraminidase. J Infect Dis. 1997 Aug; 176 Suppl 1:S62-5. PMID: 9240697.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Colacino JM, Laver WG, Air GM. Selection of influenza A and B viruses for resistance to 4-guanidino-Neu5Ac2en in cell culture. J Infect Dis. 1997 Aug; 176 Suppl 1:S66-8. PMID: 9240698.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Sudbeck EA, Jedrzejas MJ, Singh S, Brouillette WJ, Air GM, Laver WG, Babu YS, Bantia S, Chand P, Chu N, Montgomery JA, Walsh DA, Luo M. Guanidinobenzoic acid inhibitors of influenza virus neuraminidase. J Mol Biol. 1997 Apr 04; 267(3):584-94. PMID: 9126840.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Yang P, Bansal A, Liu C, Air GM. Hemagglutinin specificity and neuraminidase coding capacity of neuraminidase-deficient influenza viruses. Virology. 1997 Mar 03; 229(1):155-65. PMID: 9123857.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Staschke KA, Colacino JM, Baxter AJ, Air GM, Bansal A, Hornback WJ, Munroe JE, Laver WG. Molecular basis for the resistance of influenza viruses to 4-guanidino-Neu5Ac2en. Virology. 1995 Dec 20; 214(2):642-6. PMID: 8553569.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Jedrzejas MJ, Singh S, Brouillette WJ, Air GM, Luo M. A strategy for theoretical binding constant, Ki, calculations for neuraminidase aromatic inhibitors designed on the basis of the active site structure of influenza virus neuraminidase. Proteins. 1995 Oct; 23(2):264-77. PMID: 8592707.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Jedrzejas MJ, Luo M, Singh S, Brouillette WJ, Air GM. 4-(Acetylamino)-3-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzoic acid. Acta Crystallogr C. 1995 Sep 15; 51 ( Pt 9):1910-2. PMID: 7576370.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Singh S, Jedrzejas MJ, Air GM, Luo M, Laver WG, Brouillette WJ. Structure-based inhibitors of influenza virus sialidase. A benzoic acid lead with novel interaction. J Med Chem. 1995 Aug 18; 38(17):3217-25. PMID: 7650674.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Air GM, Laver WG. Red cells bound to influenza virus N9 neuraminidase are not released by the N9 neuraminidase activity. Virology. 1995 Aug 01; 211(1):278-84. PMID: 7645221.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Luo M, Jedrzejas MJ, Singh S, White CL, Brouillette WJ, Air GM, Laver WG. Benzoic acid inhibitors of influenza virus neuraminidase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1995 Jul 01; 51(Pt 4):504-10. PMID: 15299837.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Jedrzejas MJ, Singh S, Brouillette WJ, Laver WG, Air GM, Luo M. Structures of aromatic inhibitors of influenza virus neuraminidase. Biochemistry. 1995 Mar 14; 34(10):3144-51. PMID: 7880809.
      View in: PubMed
    64. White CL, Janakiraman MN, Laver WG, Philippon C, Vasella A, Air GM, Luo M. A sialic acid-derived phosphonate analog inhibits different strains of influenza virus neuraminidase with different efficiencies. J Mol Biol. 1995 Feb 03; 245(5):623-34. PMID: 7844831.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Rivera K, Thomas H, Zhang H, Bossart-Whitaker P, Wei X, Air GM. Probing the structure of influenza B hemagglutinin using site-directed mutagenesis. Virology. 1995 Feb 01; 206(2):787-95. PMID: 7856092.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Liu C, Eichelberger MC, Compans RW, Air GM. Influenza type A virus neuraminidase does not play a role in viral entry, replication, assembly, or budding. J Virol. 1995 Feb; 69(2):1099-106. PMID: 7815489; PMCID: PMC188682.
    67. Janakiraman MN, White CL, Laver WG, Air GM, Luo M. Structure of influenza virus neuraminidase B/Lee/40 complexed with sialic acid and a dehydro analog at 1.8-A resolution: implications for the catalytic mechanism. Biochemistry. 1994 Jul 12; 33(27):8172-9. PMID: 8031750.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Zhang H, Air GM. Expression of functional influenza virus A polymerase proteins and template from cloned cDNAS in recombinant vaccinia virus infected cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 Apr 15; 200(1):95-101. PMID: 8166749.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Nuss JM, Air GM. Defining the requirements for an antibody epitope on influenza virus neuraminidase: how tolerant are protein epitopes? J Mol Biol. 1994 Jan 14; 235(2):747-59. PMID: 7507170.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Bossart-Whitaker P, Carson M, Babu YS, Smith CD, Laver WG, Air GM. Three-dimensional structure of influenza A N9 neuraminidase and its complex with the inhibitor 2-deoxy 2,3-dehydro-N-acetyl neuraminic acid. J Mol Biol. 1993 Aug 20; 232(4):1069-83. PMID: 8371267.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Liu C, Air GM. Selection and characterization of a neuraminidase-minus mutant of influenza virus and its rescue by cloned neuraminidase genes. Virology. 1993 May; 194(1):403-7. PMID: 8480427.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Nuss JM, Whitaker PB, Air GM. Identification of critical contact residues in the NC41 epitope of a subtype N9 influenza virus neuraminidase. Proteins. 1993 Feb; 15(2):121-32. PMID: 7680132.
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    73. Nuss JM, Air GM. Transfer of the hemagglutinin activity of influenza virus neuraminidase subtype N9 into an N2 neuraminidase background. Virology. 1991 Aug; 183(2):496-504. PMID: 1853557.
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    74. Air GM, Laver WG, Webster RG. Mechanism of antigenic variation in an individual epitope on influenza virus N9 neuraminidase. J Virol. 1990 Dec; 64(12):5797-803. PMID: 1700825; PMCID: PMC248733.
    75. Lin YJ, Luo M, Laver WG, Air GM, Smith CD, Webster RG. New crystalline forms of neuraminidase of type B human influenza virus. J Mol Biol. 1990 Aug 05; 214(3):639-40. PMID: 2388263.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Air GM, Laver WG, Luo M, Stray SJ, Legrone G, Webster RG. Antigenic, sequence, and crystal variation in influenza B neuraminidase. Virology. 1990 Aug; 177(2):578-87. PMID: 1695410.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Laver WG, Air GM, Webster RG, Smith-Gill SJ. Epitopes on protein antigens: misconceptions and realities. Cell. 1990 May 18; 61(4):553-6. PMID: 1693095.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Air GM, Gibbs AJ, Laver WG, Webster RG. Evolutionary changes in influenza B are not primarily governed by antibody selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 May; 87(10):3884-8. PMID: 2378639; PMCID: PMC54008.
    79. Wu Q, Lahti JM, Air GM, Burrows PD, Cooper MD. Molecular cloning of the murine BP-1/6C3 antigen: a member of the zinc-dependent metallopeptidase family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Feb; 87(3):993-7. PMID: 1689065; PMCID: PMC53396.
    80. Colman PM, Tulip WR, Varghese JN, Tulloch PA, Baker AT, Laver WG, Air GM, Webster RG. Three-dimensional structures of influenza virus neuraminidase-antibody complexes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1989 Jun 12; 323(1217):511-8. PMID: 2569208.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Els MC, Laver WG, Air GM. Sialic acid is cleaved from glycoconjugates at the cell surface when influenza virus neuraminidases are expressed from recombinant vaccinia viruses. Virology. 1989 May; 170(1):346-51. PMID: 2718386.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Air GM, Laver WG. The neuraminidase of influenza virus. Proteins. 1989; 6(4):341-56. PMID: 2482974.
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    83. Air GM, Laver WG, Webster RG, Els MC, Luo M. Antibody recognition of the influenza virus neuraminidase. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1989; 54 Pt 1:247-55. PMID: 2484161.
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    84. Tulip WR, Varghese JN, Webster RG, Air GM, Laver WG, Colman PM. Crystal structures of neuraminidase-antibody complexes. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1989; 54 Pt 1:257-63. PMID: 2484162.
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    85. Laver WG, Luo M, Bossart PJ, Babu YS, Smith C, Accavitti MA, Tulloch PA, Air GM. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of type B influenza virus neuraminidase complexed with antibody Fab fragments. Virology. 1988 Dec; 167(2):621-4. PMID: 3201756.
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    86. Bossart PJ, Babu YS, Cook WJ, Air GM, Laver WG. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analyses of two neuraminidases from influenza B virus strains B/Hong Kong/8/73 and B/Lee/40. J Biol Chem. 1988 May 05; 263(13):6421-3. PMID: 3360786.
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    87. Air GM, Webster RG, Colman PM, Laver WG. Distribution of sequence differences in influenza N9 neuraminidase of tern and whale viruses and crystallization of the whale neuraminidase complexed with antibodies. Virology. 1987 Oct; 160(2):346-54. PMID: 3660585.
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    88. Webster RG, Air GM, Metzger DW, Colman PM, Varghese JN, Baker AT, Laver WG. Antigenic structure and variation in an influenza virus N9 neuraminidase. J Virol. 1987 Sep; 61(9):2910-6. PMID: 3612957; PMCID: PMC255818.
    89. Lentz MR, Webster RG, Air GM. Site-directed mutation of the active site of influenza neuraminidase and implications for the catalytic mechanism. Biochemistry. 1987 Aug 25; 26(17):5351-8. PMID: 3314986.
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    90. Colman PM, Laver WG, Varghese JN, Baker AT, Tulloch PA, Air GM, Webster RG. Three-dimensional structure of a complex of antibody with influenza virus neuraminidase. Nature. 1987 Mar 26-Apr 1; 326(6111):358-63. PMID: 2436051.
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    91. Wei X, Els MC, Webster RG, Air GM. Effects of site-specific mutation on structure and activity of influenza virus B/Lee/40 neuraminidase. Virology. 1987 Feb; 156(2):253-8. PMID: 3811237.
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    92. Baker AT, Varghese JN, Laver WG, Air GM, Colman PM. Three-dimensional structure of neuraminidase of subtype N9 from an avian influenza virus. Proteins. 1987; 2(2):111-7. PMID: 3447170.
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    93. Ritchie LR, Webster RG, Laver WG, Air GM. Heterogeneity of neuraminidase genetic information in an H1N2 reassortant influenza virus [X-7 (F1)]. Brief report. Arch Virol. 1987; 96(3-4):303-8. PMID: 3502714.
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    94. Air GM, Laver WG, Webster RG. Antigenic variation in influenza viruses. Contrib Microbiol Immunol. 1987; 8:20-59. PMID: 3304832.
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    95. Air GM, Lentz MR, Ritchie LR, Vai K, Hamilton AM. [Expression and mutagenesis of genes coding for protein synthesis in the influenza virus]. Vopr Virusol. 1987 Jan-Feb; 32(1):44-51. PMID: 3033905.
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    96. Colman PM, Air GM, Webster RG, Varghese JN, Baker AT, Lentz MR, Tulloch PA, Laver WG. How antibodies recognize virus proteins. Immunol Today. 1987; 8(11):323-6. PMID: 25291054.
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    97. Dale B, Brown R, Miller J, White RT, Air GM, Cordell B. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the influenza neuraminidase genes of two equine serotypes. Virology. 1986 Dec; 155(2):460-8. PMID: 3788060.
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    98. Tulloch PA, Colman PM, Davis PC, Laver WG, Webster RG, Air GM. Electron and X-ray diffraction studies of influenza neuraminidase complexed with monoclonal antibodies. J Mol Biol. 1986 Jul 20; 190(2):215-25. PMID: 3795268.
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    99. Lentz MR, Air GM. Loss of enzyme activity in a site-directed mutant of influenza neuraminidase compared to expressed wild-type protein. Virology. 1986 Jan 15; 148(1):74-83. PMID: 2417413.
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    100. Air GM, Laver WG. The molecular basis of antigenic variation in influenza virus. Adv Virus Res. 1986; 31:53-102. PMID: 2428216.
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    101. Air GM, Els MC, Brown LE, Laver WG, Webster RG. Location of antigenic sites on the three-dimensional structure of the influenza N2 virus neuraminidase. Virology. 1985 Sep; 145(2):237-48. PMID: 2411049.
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    102. Air GM, Ritchie LR, Laver WG, Colman PM. Gene and protein sequence of an influenza neuraminidase with hemagglutinin activity. Virology. 1985 Aug; 145(1):117-22. PMID: 4013081.
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    103. Els MC, Air GM, Murti KG, Webster RG, Laver WG. An 18-amino acid deletion in an influenza neuraminidase. Virology. 1985 Apr 30; 142(2):241-7. PMID: 4060573.
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    104. Hovanec DL, Air GM. Antigenic structure of the hemagglutinin of influenza virus B/Hong Kong/8/73 as determined from gene sequence analysis of variants selected with monoclonal antibodies. Virology. 1984 Dec; 139(2):384-92. PMID: 6083660.
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    105. Laver WG, Colman PM, Webster RG, Hinshaw VS, Air GM. Influenza virus neuraminidase with hemagglutinin activity. Virology. 1984 Sep; 137(2):314-23. PMID: 6485252.
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    106. Lentz MR, Air GM, Laver WG, Webster RG. Sequence of the neuraminidase gene of influenza virus A/Tokyo/3/67 and previously uncharacterized monoclonal variants. Virology. 1984 May; 135(1):257-65. PMID: 6203216.
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    107. Newton SE, Air GM, Webster RG, Laver WG. Sequence of the hemagglutinin gene of influenza virus A/Memphis/1/71 and previously uncharacterized monoclonal antibody-derived variants. Virology. 1983 Jul 30; 128(2):495-501. PMID: 6193634.
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    108. Laver WG, Air GM, Webster RG, Markoff LJ. Amino acid sequence changes in antigenic variants of type A influenza virus N2 neuraminidase. Virology. 1982 Oct 30; 122(2):450-60. PMID: 6183823.
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    109. Blok J, Air GM. Sequence variation at the 3' end of the neuraminidase gene from 39 influenza type A viruses. Virology. 1982 Sep; 121(2):211-29. PMID: 6927853.
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    110. Blok J, Air GM. Variation in the membrane-insertion and "stalk" sequences in eight subtypes of influenza type A virus neuraminidase. Biochemistry. 1982 Aug 17; 21(17):4001-7. PMID: 6896994.
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    111. Hinshaw VS, Air GM, Gibbs AJ, Graves L, Prescott B, Karunakaran D. Antigenic and genetic characterization of a novel hemagglutinin subtype of influenza A viruses from gulls. J Virol. 1982 Jun; 42(3):865-72. PMID: 7097861; PMCID: PMC256920.
    112. Blok J, Air GM, Laver WG, Ward CW, Lilley GG, Woods EF, Roxburgh CM, Inglis AS. Studies on the size, chemical composition, and partial sequence of the neuraminidase (NA) from type A influenza viruses show that the N-terminal region of the NA is not processed and serves to anchor the NA in the viral membrane. Virology. 1982 May; 119(1):109-21. PMID: 7072153.
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    113. Blok J, Air GM. Block deletions in the neuraminidase genes from some influenza A viruses of the N1 subtype. Virology. 1982 Apr 15; 118(1):229-34. PMID: 7080440.
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    114. Webster RG, Laver WG, Air GM, Schild GC. Molecular mechanisms of variation in influenza viruses. Nature. 1982 Mar 11; 296(5853):115-21. PMID: 6174870.
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    115. Air GM. Sequence relationships among the hemagglutinin genes of 12 subtypes of influenza A virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Dec; 78(12):7639-43. PMID: 6174976; PMCID: PMC349324.
    116. Laver WG, Air GM, Webster RG. Antigenicity of influenza virus hemagglutinin following chemical modification. Virology. 1981 Jun; 111(2):538-48. PMID: 6787797.
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    117. Hall RM, Air GM. Variation in nucleotide sequences coding for the N-terminal regions of the matrix and nonstructural proteins of influenza A viruses. J Virol. 1981 Apr; 38(1):1-7. PMID: 7241645; PMCID: PMC171118.
    118. Laver WG, Air GM, Webster RG. Mechanism of antigenic drift in influenza virus. Amino acid sequence changes in an antigenically active region of Hong Kong (H3N2) influenza virus hemagglutinin. J Mol Biol. 1981 Jan 15; 145(2):339-61. PMID: 6167724.
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    119. Blok J, Air GM. Comparative nucleotide sequences at the 3' end of the neuraminidase gene from eleven influenza type A viruses. Virology. 1980 Nov; 107(1):50-60. PMID: 7445434.
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    120. Laver WG, Air GM, Webster RG. NIAID News. Summary of a meeting on structure and variation in influenza viruses. J Infect Dis. 1980 Sep; 142(3):465-71. PMID: 6160186.
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    121. Air GM, Hackett JA. Gene 8 of influenza virus: sequences of cDNA transcribed from the 3' ends of viral RNA of influenza A and B strains. Virology. 1980 Jun; 103(2):291-8. PMID: 7385583.
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    122. Laver WG, Air GM, Webster RG, Gerhard W, Ward CW, Dopheide TA. The mechanism of antigenic drift in influenza virus: sequence changes in the haemagglutinin of variants selected with monoclonal hybridoma antibodies. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1980 Feb 25; 288(1029):313-26. PMID: 6103548.
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    123. Laver WG, Air GM, Dopheide TA, Ward CW. Amino acid sequence changes in the haemagglutinin of A/Hong Kong (H3N2) influenza virus during the period 1968--77. Nature. 1980 Jan 31; 283(5746):454-7. PMID: 6153236.
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    124. Air GM, Laver WG, Webster RG. Towards a universal influenza vaccine. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1980; 47:193-215. PMID: 6163156.
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    125. Webster RG, Laver WG, Air GM, Ward C, Gerhard W, van Wyke KL. The mechanism of antigenic drift in influenza viruses: analysis of Hong Kong (H3N2) variants with monoclonal antibodies to the hemagglutinin molecule. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1980; 354:142-61. PMID: 6164328.
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    126. Laver WG, Air GM, Webster RG, Gerhard W, Ward CW, Dopheide TA. Antigenic drift in type A influenza virus: sequence differences in the hemagglutinin of Hong Kong (H3N2) variants selected with monoclonal hybridoma antibodies. Virology. 1979 Oct 15; 98(1):226-37. PMID: 90425.
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    127. Air GM. Nucleotide sequence coding for the "signal peptide" and N terminus of the hemagglutinin from an asian (H2N2) strain of influenza virus. Virology. 1979 Sep; 97(2):468-72. PMID: 473601.
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    128. Both GW, Air GM. Nucleotide sequence coding for the N-terminal region of the matrix protein influenza virus. Eur J Biochem. 1979 May 15; 96(2):363-72. PMID: 572297.
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    129. Laver WG, Gerhard W, Webster RG, Frankel ME, Air GM. Antigenic drift in type A influenza virus: peptide mapping and antigenic analysis of A/PR/8/34 (HON1) variants selected with monoclonal antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Mar; 76(3):1425-9. PMID: 86990; PMCID: PMC383264.
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