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Jimmy D. Ballard

TitleProf & Chair
InstitutionUniversity of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
DepartmentMicrobiology & Immunology
Address940 Stanton L Young Blvd
Oklahoma City OK 73104-5020
Phone405/271-2133
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    R21HD044861     (BALLARD, JIMMY D.)Aug 1, 2003 - Jul 31, 2006
    NIH/NICHD
    The Impact of Anthrax Toxin on Embryonic Development
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01HL084489     (BALLARD, JIMMY D.)Sep 30, 2007 - May 31, 2013
    NIH/NHLBI
    Systemic events in Clostridium difficile associated disease
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R13AI120495     (BALLARD, JIMMY D.)Aug 1, 2015 - Jul 31, 2016
    NIH/NIAID
    Meeting on the Pathogenesis of Clostridia
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AI119048     (BALLARD, JIMMY D.)Aug 7, 2015 - Jan 31, 2020
    NIH/NIAID
    Differential Effects of TcdB1 and TcdB2 in C. difficile disease
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R21AI121925     (BALLARD, JIMMY D.)Jan 1, 2016 - Dec 31, 2017
    NIH/NIAID
    Characterization of a C. difficile Toxin-Encoded Cell Penetrating Peptide
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Dumas EK, Gross T, Larabee J, Pate L, Cuthbertson H, Charlton S, Hallis B, Engler RJM, Collins LC, Spooner CE, Chen H, Ballard J, James JA, Farris AD. Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated Induces Edema Toxin-Neutralizing, Edema Factor-Specific Antibodies in Human Recipients. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017 Nov; 24(11). PMID: 28877928.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Hunt JJ, Larabee JL, Ballard JD. Amino Acid Differences in the 1753-to-1851 Region of TcdB Influence Variations in TcdB1 and TcdB2 Cell Entry. mSphere. 2017 Jul-Aug; 2(4). PMID: 28776043.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Larabee JL, Bland SJ, Hunt JJ, Ballard JD. Intrinsic Toxin-Derived Peptides Destabilize and Inactivate Clostridium difficile TcdB. MBio. 2017 May 16; 8(3). PMID: 28512094.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Rampuria P, Lang GA, Devera TS, Gilmore C, Ballard JD, Lang ML. Coordination between T helper cells, iNKT cells, and their follicular helper subsets in the humoral immune response against Clostridium difficile toxin B. J Leukoc Biol. 2017 Feb; 101(2):567-576. PMID: 27566831.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Devera TS, Lang GA, Lanis JM, Rampuria P, Gilmore CL, James JA, Ballard JD, Lang ML. Memory B Cells Encode Neutralizing Antibody Specific for Toxin B from the Clostridium difficile Strains VPI 10463 and NAP1/BI/027 but with Superior Neutralization of VPI 10463 Toxin B. Infect Immun. 2015 Oct 26; 84(1):194-204. PMID: 26502913; PMCID: PMC4693989.
    6. Devera TS, Prusator DK, Joshi SK, Ballard JD, Lang ML. Immunization of Mice with Anthrax Protective Antigen Limits Cardiotoxicity but Not Hepatotoxicity Following Lethal Toxin Challenge. Toxins (Basel). 2015 Jun 25; 7(7):2371-84. PMID: 26120785; PMCID: PMC4516918.
    7. Larabee JL, Krumholz A, Hunt JJ, Lanis JM, Ballard JD. Exposure of neutralizing epitopes in the carboxyl-terminal domain of TcdB is altered by a proximal hypervariable region. J Biol Chem. 2015 Mar 13; 290(11):6975-85. PMID: 25614625; PMCID: PMC4358121.
    8. Hunt JJ, Ballard JD. Variations in virulence and molecular biology among emerging strains of Clostridium difficile. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2013 Dec; 77(4):567-81. PMID: 24296572; PMCID: PMC3973386.
    9. Lanis JM, Heinlen LD, James JA, Ballard JD. Clostridium difficile 027/BI/NAP1 encodes a hypertoxic and antigenically variable form of TcdB. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(8):e1003523. PMID: 23935501; PMCID: PMC3731247.
    10. Barua S, Iyer JK, Larabee JL, Raisley B, Hughes MA, Coggeshall KM, Ballard JD. Toxin inhibition of antimicrobial factors induced by Bacillus anthracis peptidoglycan in human blood. Infect Immun. 2013 Oct; 81(10):3693-702. PMID: 23876807; PMCID: PMC3811742.
    11. Larabee JL, Shakir SM, Barua S, Ballard JD. Increased cAMP in monocytes augments Notch signaling mechanisms by elevating RBP-J and transducin-like enhancer of Split (TLE). J Biol Chem. 2013 Jul 26; 288(30):21526-36. PMID: 23775085; PMCID: PMC3724613.
    12. Coggeshall KM, Lupu F, Ballard J, Metcalf JP, James JA, Farris D, Kurosawa S. The sepsis model: an emerging hypothesis for the lethality of inhalation anthrax. J Cell Mol Med. 2013 Jul; 17(7):914-20. PMID: 23742651; PMCID: PMC3729634.
    13. Langer M, Duggan ES, Booth JL, Patel VI, Zander RA, Silasi-Mansat R, Ramani V, Veres TZ, Prenzler F, Sewald K, Williams DM, Coggeshall KM, Awasthi S, Lupu F, Burian D, Ballard JD, Braun A, Metcalf JP. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin reduces human alveolar epithelial barrier function. Infect Immun. 2012 Dec; 80(12):4374-87. PMID: 23027535; PMCID: PMC3497415.
    14. Shakir FA, Ali T, Bigham AC, Ballard JD, Miner PB, Philpott JR. Determination of serum antibodies to Clostridium difficile toxin B in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2012 May; 8(5):313-7. PMID: 22933861; PMCID: PMC3424425.
    15. Lanis JM, Hightower LD, Shen A, Ballard JD. TcdB from hypervirulent Clostridium difficile exhibits increased efficiency of autoprocessing. Mol Microbiol. 2012 Apr; 84(1):66-76. PMID: 22372854; PMCID: PMC3313004.
    16. Rose K, Long P, Shankar M, Ballard JD, Webb CF. Serum amyloid A protects murine macrophages from lethal toxin-mediated death. Cell Immunol. 2012; 272(2):175-81. PMID: 22082566; PMCID: PMC3244522.
    17. Barua S, Larabee J, Regens JL, Ballard JD. Differential inflammatory responses triggered by toxic small molecules. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012 Mar; 19(3):619-27. PMID: 21881907.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Devera TS, Joshi SK, Aye LM, Lang GA, Ballard JD, Lang ML. Regulation of anthrax toxin-specific antibody titers by natural killer T cell-derived IL-4 and IFN?. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23817. PMID: 21858226; PMCID: PMC3157475.
    19. Larabee JL, Maldonado-Arocho FJ, Pacheco S, France B, DeGiusti K, Shakir SM, Bradley KA, Ballard JD. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 activation is important for anthrax edema toxin-induced dendritic cell maturation and anthrax toxin receptor 2 expression in macrophages. Infect Immun. 2011 Aug; 79(8):3302-8. PMID: 21576335; PMCID: PMC3147554.
    20. Larabee JL, Shakir SM, Hightower L, Ballard JD. Adenomatous polyposis coli protein associates with C/EBP beta and increases Bacillus anthracis edema toxin-stimulated gene expression in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jun 03; 286(22):19364-72. PMID: 21487015; PMCID: PMC3103314.
    21. Crowe SR, Garman L, Engler RJ, Farris AD, Ballard JD, Harley JB, James JA. Anthrax vaccination induced anti-lethal factor IgG: fine specificity and neutralizing capacity. Vaccine. 2011 May 09; 29(20):3670-8. PMID: 21420416; PMCID: PMC3233230.
    22. Bryant-Hudson KM, Shakir SM, Ballard JD. Autoregulatory characteristics of a Bacillus anthracis serine/threonine kinase. J Bacteriol. 2011 Apr; 193(8):1833-42. PMID: 21296958; PMCID: PMC3133050.
    23. Ballard JD. Medical microbiology: A toxin contest. Nature. 2010 Oct 07; 467(7316):665-6. PMID: 20930831.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Heinlen L, Ballard JD. Clostridium difficile infection. Am J Med Sci. 2010 Sep; 340(3):247-52. PMID: 20697257; PMCID: PMC2935936.
    25. Lanis JM, Barua S, Ballard JD. Variations in TcdB activity and the hypervirulence of emerging strains of Clostridium difficile. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Aug 19; 6(8):e1001061. PMID: 20808849; PMCID: PMC2924371.
    26. Crowe SR, Ash LL, Engler RJ, Ballard JD, Harley JB, Farris AD, James JA. Select human anthrax protective antigen epitope-specific antibodies provide protection from lethal toxin challenge. J Infect Dis. 2010 Jul 15; 202(2):251-60. PMID: 20533877; PMCID: PMC2891133.
    27. Iyer JK, Khurana T, Langer M, West CM, Ballard JD, Metcalf JP, Merkel TJ, Coggeshall KM. Inflammatory cytokine response to Bacillus anthracis peptidoglycan requires phagocytosis and lysosomal trafficking. Infect Immun. 2010 Jun; 78(6):2418-28. PMID: 20308305; PMCID: PMC2876538.
    28. Devera TS, Aye LM, Lang GA, Joshi SK, Ballard JD, Lang ML. CD1d-dependent B-cell help by NK-like T cells leads to enhanced and sustained production of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-neutralizing antibodies. Infect Immun. 2010 Apr; 78(4):1610-7. PMID: 20123711; PMCID: PMC2849421.
    29. Aronoff DM, Ballard JD. Clostridium sordellii toxic shock syndrome. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009 Dec; 9(12):725-6. PMID: 19926032.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Shakir SM, Bryant KM, Larabee JL, Hamm EE, Lovchik J, Lyons CR, Ballard JD. Regulatory interactions of a virulence-associated serine/threonine phosphatase-kinase pair in Bacillus anthracis. J Bacteriol. 2010 Jan; 192(2):400-9. PMID: 19915022; PMCID: PMC2805330.
    31. Wu W, Mehta H, Chakrabarty K, Booth JL, Duggan ES, Patel KB, Ballard JD, Coggeshall KM, Metcalf JP. Resistance of human alveolar macrophages to Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. J Immunol. 2009 Nov 01; 183(9):5799-806. PMID: 19812208; PMCID: PMC2770336.
    32. Joshi SK, Lang GA, Larabee JL, Devera TS, Aye LM, Shah HB, Ballard JD, Lang ML. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin disrupts TCR signaling in CD1d-restricted NKT cells leading to functional anergy. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Sep; 5(9):e1000588. PMID: 19779559; PMCID: PMC2742733.
    33. Nguyen ML, Terzyan S, Ballard JD, James JA, Farris AD. The major neutralizing antibody responses to recombinant anthrax lethal and edema factors are directed to non-cross-reactive epitopes. Infect Immun. 2009 Nov; 77(11):4714-23. PMID: 19720758; PMCID: PMC2772542.
    34. Nguyen ML, Crowe SR, Kurella S, Teryzan S, Cao B, Ballard JD, James JA, Farris AD. Sequential B-cell epitopes of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor bind lethal toxin-neutralizing antibodies. Infect Immun. 2009 Jan; 77(1):162-9. PMID: 18981257; PMCID: PMC2612257.
    35. Barua S, McKevitt M, DeGiusti K, Hamm EE, Larabee J, Shakir S, Bryant K, Koehler TM, Blanke SR, Dyer D, Gillaspy A, Ballard JD. The mechanism of Bacillus anthracis intracellular germination requires multiple and highly diverse genetic loci. Infect Immun. 2009 Jan; 77(1):23-31. PMID: 18936179; PMCID: PMC2612280.
    36. Gut IM, Prouty AM, Ballard JD, van der Donk WA, Blanke SR. Inhibition of Bacillus anthracis spore outgrowth by nisin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Dec; 52(12):4281-8. PMID: 18809941; PMCID: PMC2592879.
    37. Larabee JL, DeGiusti K, Regens JL, Ballard JD. Bacillus anthracis edema toxin activates nuclear glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. Infect Immun. 2008 Nov; 76(11):4895-904. PMID: 18765729; PMCID: PMC2573379.
    38. Stojkovic B, Torres EM, Prouty AM, Patel HK, Zhuang L, Koehler TM, Ballard JD, Blanke SR. High-throughput, single-cell analysis of macrophage interactions with fluorescently labeled Bacillus anthracis spores. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Aug; 74(16):5201-10. PMID: 18552183; PMCID: PMC2519261.
    39. McKevitt MT, Bryant KM, Shakir SM, Larabee JL, Blanke SR, Lovchik J, Lyons CR, Ballard JD. Effects of endogenous D-alanine synthesis and autoinhibition of Bacillus anthracis germination on in vitro and in vivo infections. Infect Immun. 2007 Dec; 75(12):5726-34. PMID: 17923523; PMCID: PMC2168361.
    40. Voth DE, Ballard JD. Critical intermediate steps in Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin-induced apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Nov 30; 363(4):959-64. PMID: 17910886.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Luo Q, Groh JL, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR. Identification of genes that confer sediment fitness to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Oct; 73(19):6305-12. PMID: 17704273; PMCID: PMC2074997.
    42. Dodd D, Reese JG, Louer CR, Ballard JD, Spies MA, Blanke SR. Functional comparison of the two Bacillus anthracis glutamate racemases. J Bacteriol. 2007 Jul; 189(14):5265-75. PMID: 17496086; PMCID: PMC1951872.
    43. Hamm EE, Ballard JD. Elucidating the in vivo targets of bacterial toxins. Future Microbiol. 2007 Feb; 2(1):85-92. PMID: 17661678.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Groh JL, Luo Q, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR. Genes that enhance the ecological fitness of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in sediments reveal the value of antibiotic resistance. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Jan; 73(2):492-8. PMID: 17114320; PMCID: PMC1796991.
    45. Hamm EE, Voth DE, Ballard JD. Identification of Clostridium difficile toxin B cardiotoxicity using a zebrafish embryo model of intoxication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Sep 19; 103(38):14176-81. PMID: 16966605; PMCID: PMC1599930.
    46. Salles II, Voth DE, Ward SC, Averette KM, Tweten RK, Bradley KA, Ballard JD. Cytotoxic activity of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen observed in a macrophage cell line overexpressing ANTXR1. Cell Microbiol. 2006 Aug; 8(8):1272-81. PMID: 16882031.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Voth DE, Martinez OV, Ballard JD. Variations in lethal toxin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysin production correspond to differences in cytotoxicity among strains of Clostridium sordellii. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006 Jun; 259(2):295-302. PMID: 16734793.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Groh JL, Luo Q, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR. A method adapting microarray technology for signature-tagged mutagenesis of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in anaerobic sediment survival experiments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005 Nov; 71(11):7064-74. PMID: 16269742; PMCID: PMC1287673.
    49. Voth DE, Hamm EE, Nguyen LG, Tucker AE, Salles II, Ortiz-Leduc W, Ballard JD. Bacillus anthracis oedema toxin as a cause of tissue necrosis and cell type-specific cytotoxicity. Cell Microbiol. 2005 Aug; 7(8):1139-49. PMID: 16008581.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Voth DE, Ballard JD. Clostridium difficile toxins: mechanism of action and role in disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005 Apr; 18(2):247-63. PMID: 15831824; PMCID: PMC1082799.
    51. Voth DE, Qa'Dan M, Hamm EE, Pelfrey JM, Ballard JD. Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin is maintained in a multimeric protein complex. Infect Immun. 2004 Jun; 72(6):3366-72. PMID: 15155642; PMCID: PMC415707.
    52. Chang IS, Groh JL, Ramsey MM, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR. Differential expression of Desulfovibrio vulgaris genes in response to Cu(II) and Hg(II) toxicity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Mar; 70(3):1847-51. PMID: 15006815; PMCID: PMC368381.
    53. Mourez M, Yan M, Lacy DB, Dillon L, Bentsen L, Marpoe A, Maurin C, Hotze E, Wigelsworth D, Pimental RA, Ballard JD, Collier RJ, Tweten RK. Mapping dominant-negative mutations of anthrax protective antigen by scanning mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Nov 25; 100(24):13803-8. PMID: 14623961; PMCID: PMC283502.
    54. Salles II, Tucker AE, Voth DE, Ballard JD. Toxin-induced resistance in Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-treated macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Oct 14; 100(21):12426-31. PMID: 14519843; PMCID: PMC218774.
    55. Chang IS, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR. Evidence for chimeric sequences formed during random arbitrarily primed PCR. J Microbiol Methods. 2003 Sep; 54(3):427-31. PMID: 12842491.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Tucker AE, Salles II, Voth DE, Ortiz-Leduc W, Wang H, Dozmorov I, Centola M, Ballard JD. Decreased glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta levels and related physiological changes in Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-treated macrophages. Cell Microbiol. 2003 Aug; 5(8):523-32. PMID: 12864812.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Spyres LM, Daniel J, Hensley A, Qa'Dan M, Ortiz-Leduc W, Ballard JD. Mutational analysis of the enzymatic domain of Clostridium difficile toxin B reveals novel inhibitors of the wild-type toxin. Infect Immun. 2003 Jun; 71(6):3294-301. PMID: 12761111; PMCID: PMC155706.
    58. Qa'Dan M, Ramsey M, Daniel J, Spyres LM, Safiejko-Mroczka B, Ortiz-Leduc W, Ballard JD. Clostridium difficile toxin B activates dual caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis in intoxicated cells. Cell Microbiol. 2002 Jul; 4(7):425-34. PMID: 12102688.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Steger JL, Vincent C, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR. Desulfovibrio sp. genes involved in the respiration of sulfate during metabolism of hydrogen and lactate. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002 Apr; 68(4):1932-7. PMID: 11916715; PMCID: PMC123884.
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