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Jimmy D. Ballard

TitleProf & Chair
InstitutionUniversity of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
DepartmentMicrobiology & Immunology
AddressBMSB 1053
940 Stanton L Young Blvd
Oklahoma City OK 73104
Phone405/271-2133
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    R21HD044861     (BALLARD, JIMMY D.)Aug 1, 2003 - Jul 31, 2006
    NIH
    The Impact of Anthrax Toxin on Embryonic Development
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01HL084489     (BALLARD, JIMMY D.)Sep 30, 2007 - May 31, 2013
    NIH
    Systemic events in Clostridium difficile associated disease
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R13AI120495     (BALLARD, JIMMY D.)Aug 1, 2015 - Jul 31, 2016
    NIH
    Meeting on the Pathogenesis of Clostridia
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01AI119048     (BALLARD, JIMMY D.)Aug 7, 2015 - Jan 31, 2025
    NIH
    Differential Effects of TcdB1 and TcdB2 in C. difficile disease
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R21AI121925     (BALLARD, JIMMY D.)Jan 1, 2016 - Dec 31, 2018
    NIH
    Characterization of a C. difficile Toxin-Encoded Cell Penetrating Peptide
    Role: Principal Investigator

    P20GM134973     (BALLARD, JIMMY D.)Mar 1, 2020 - Jan 31, 2025
    NIH
    Oklahoma Center for Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunity
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Amadou Amani S, Lang GA, Ballard JD, Lang ML. The murine neonatal Fc receptor is required for transport of immunization-induced C. difficile-specific IgG to the gut and protection against disease but does not affect disease susceptibility. Infect Immun. 2021 Jun 07; IAI0027421. PMID: 34097471.
      Citations:    
    2. Ahmed UKB, Shadid TM, Larabee JL, Ballard JD. Combined and Distinct Roles of Agr Proteins in Clostridioides difficile 630 Sporulation, Motility, and Toxin Production. mBio. 2020 12 22; 11(6). PMID: 33443122.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    3. Coyne C, Ballard JD, Blader IJ. Recommendations for future university pandemic responses: What the first COVID-19 shutdown taught us. PLoS Biol. 2020 08; 18(8):e3000889. PMID: 32853196.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    4. Shah HB, Smith K, Scott EJ, Larabee JL, James JA, Ballard JD, Lang ML. Human C. difficile toxin-specific memory B cell repertoires encode poorly neutralizing antibodies. JCI Insight. 2020 08 20; 5(16). PMID: 32663199.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    
    5. Dumas EK, Demiraslan H, Ingram RJ, Sparks RM, Muns E, Zamora A, Larabee J, Garman L, Ballard JD, Boons GJ, James JA, Kayabas U, Doganay M, Farris AD. Toxin-neutralizing antibodies elicited by naturally acquired cutaneous anthrax are elevated following severe disease and appear to target conformational epitopes. PLoS One. 2020; 15(4):e0230782. PMID: 32294093.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    6. Amadou Amani S, Shadid T, Ballard JD, Lang ML. Clostridioides difficile Infection Induces an Inferior IgG Response to That Induced by Immunization and Is Associated with a Lack of T Follicular Helper Cell and Memory B Cell Expansion. Infect Immun. 2020 02 20; 88(3). PMID: 31871095.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    7. Milligan D, Henderson L, Tucker A, Ballard J. Elastic nail fixation versus plate fixation of paediatric femoral fractures in school age patients - A retrospective observational study. J Orthop. 2020 May-Jun; 19:153-157. PMID: 32025124.
      Citations:    
    8. Tucker A, Ballard J, Cosgrove A. Temporal changes in slipped upper femoral epiphysis at a regional level: a declining incidence and literature review. J Child Orthop. 2019 Oct 01; 13(5):445-456. PMID: 31695811.
      Citations:    
    9. Bland SJ, Larabee JL, Shadid TM, Lang ML, Ballard JD. Deletion of a 19-Amino-Acid Region in Clostridioides difficile TcdB2 Results in Spontaneous Autoprocessing and Reduced Cell Binding and Provides a Nontoxic Immunogen for Vaccination. Infect Immun. 2019 08; 87(8). PMID: 31138612.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    10. Shah HB, Smith K, Wren JD, Webb CF, Ballard JD, Bourn RL, James JA, Lang ML. Insights From Analysis of Human Antigen-Specific Memory B Cell Repertoires. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:3064. PMID: 30697210.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    11. Lavey NP, Shadid T, Ballard JD, Duerfeldt AS. Clostridium difficile ClpP Homologues are Capable of Uncoupled Activity and Exhibit Different Levels of Susceptibility to Acyldepsipeptide Modulation. ACS Infect Dis. 2019 01 11; 5(1):79-89. PMID: 30411608.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    12. Larabee JL, Hauck G, Ballard JD. Unique, Intersecting, and Overlapping Roles of C/EBP ß and CREB in Cells of the Innate Immune System. Sci Rep. 2018 11 16; 8(1):16931. PMID: 30446701.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    13. Ballard JD. Pathogens boosted by food additive. Nature. 2018 01 18; 553(7688):285-286. PMID: 29345660.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Ballard JD. Pathogens boosted by food additive. Nature. 2018 Jan; 553(7688):285-286. PMID: 32094593.
      Citations:    Fields:    
    15. Larabee JL, Hauck GD, Ballard JD. Cell-penetrating peptides derived from Clostridium difficile TcdB2 and a related large clostridial toxin. J Biol Chem. 2018 02 02; 293(5):1810-1819. PMID: 29247010.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    16. Dumas EK, Gross T, Larabee J, Pate L, Cuthbertson H, Charlton S, Hallis B, Engler RJM, Collins LC, Spooner CE, Chen H, Ballard J, James JA, Farris AD. Anthrax Vaccine Precipitated Induces Edema Toxin-Neutralizing, Edema Factor-Specific Antibodies in Human Recipients. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017 Nov; 24(11). PMID: 28877928.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    17. Hunt JJ, Larabee JL, Ballard JD. Amino Acid Differences in the 1753-to-1851 Region of TcdB Influence Variations in TcdB1 and TcdB2 Cell Entry. mSphere. 2017 Jul-Aug; 2(4). PMID: 28776043.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    
    18. Larabee JL, Bland SJ, Hunt JJ, Ballard JD. Intrinsic Toxin-Derived Peptides Destabilize and Inactivate Clostridium difficile TcdB. mBio. 2017 05 16; 8(3). PMID: 28512094.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    19. Rampuria P, Lang GA, Devera TS, Gilmore C, Ballard JD, Lang ML. Coordination between T helper cells, iNKT cells, and their follicular helper subsets in the humoral immune response against Clostridium difficile toxin B. J Leukoc Biol. 2017 02; 101(2):567-576. PMID: 27566831.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    20. Devera TS, Lang GA, Lanis JM, Rampuria P, Gilmore CL, James JA, Ballard JD, Lang ML. Memory B Cells Encode Neutralizing Antibody Specific for Toxin B from the Clostridium difficile Strains VPI 10463 and NAP1/BI/027 but with Superior Neutralization of VPI 10463 Toxin B. Infect Immun. 2016 01; 84(1):194-204. PMID: 26502913.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. Devera TS, Prusator DK, Joshi SK, Ballard JD, Lang ML. Immunization of Mice with Anthrax Protective Antigen Limits Cardiotoxicity but Not Hepatotoxicity Following Lethal Toxin Challenge. Toxins (Basel). 2015 Jun 25; 7(7):2371-84. PMID: 26120785.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    22. Larabee JL, Krumholz A, Hunt JJ, Lanis JM, Ballard JD. Exposure of neutralizing epitopes in the carboxyl-terminal domain of TcdB is altered by a proximal hypervariable region. J Biol Chem. 2015 Mar 13; 290(11):6975-85. PMID: 25614625.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    23. Hunt JJ, Ballard JD. Variations in virulence and molecular biology among emerging strains of Clostridium difficile. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2013 Dec; 77(4):567-81. PMID: 24296572.
      Citations: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    24. Lanis JM, Heinlen LD, James JA, Ballard JD. Clostridium difficile 027/BI/NAP1 encodes a hypertoxic and antigenically variable form of TcdB. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(8):e1003523. PMID: 23935501.
      Citations: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Barua S, Iyer JK, Larabee JL, Raisley B, Hughes MA, Coggeshall KM, Ballard JD. Toxin inhibition of antimicrobial factors induced by Bacillus anthracis peptidoglycan in human blood. Infect Immun. 2013 Oct; 81(10):3693-702. PMID: 23876807.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    26. Larabee JL, Shakir SM, Barua S, Ballard JD. Increased cAMP in monocytes augments Notch signaling mechanisms by elevating RBP-J and transducin-like enhancer of Split (TLE). J Biol Chem. 2013 Jul 26; 288(30):21526-36. PMID: 23775085.
      Citations: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    27. Coggeshall KM, Lupu F, Ballard J, Metcalf JP, James JA, Farris D, Kurosawa S. The sepsis model: an emerging hypothesis for the lethality of inhalation anthrax. J Cell Mol Med. 2013 Jul; 17(7):914-20. PMID: 23742651.
      Citations: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    28. Langer M, Duggan ES, Booth JL, Patel VI, Zander RA, Silasi-Mansat R, Ramani V, Veres TZ, Prenzler F, Sewald K, Williams DM, Coggeshall KM, Awasthi S, Lupu F, Burian D, Ballard JD, Braun A, Metcalf JP. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin reduces human alveolar epithelial barrier function. Infect Immun. 2012 Dec; 80(12):4374-87. PMID: 23027535.
      Citations: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    29. Shakir FA, Ali T, Bigham AC, Ballard JD, Miner PB, Philpott JR. Determination of serum antibodies to Clostridium difficile toxin B in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2012 May; 8(5):313-7. PMID: 22933861.
      Citations:    
    30. Lanis JM, Hightower LD, Shen A, Ballard JD. TcdB from hypervirulent Clostridium difficile exhibits increased efficiency of autoprocessing. Mol Microbiol. 2012 Apr; 84(1):66-76. PMID: 22372854.
      Citations: 20     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    31. Rose K, Long P, Shankar M, Ballard JD, Webb CF. Serum amyloid A protects murine macrophages from lethal toxin-mediated death. Cell Immunol. 2012; 272(2):175-81. PMID: 22082566.
      Citations: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Barua S, Larabee J, Regens JL, Ballard JD. Differential inflammatory responses triggered by toxic small molecules. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012 Mar; 19(3):619-27. PMID: 21881907.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Devera TS, Joshi SK, Aye LM, Lang GA, Ballard JD, Lang ML. Regulation of anthrax toxin-specific antibody titers by natural killer T cell-derived IL-4 and IFN?. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23817. PMID: 21858226.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    34. Larabee JL, Maldonado-Arocho FJ, Pacheco S, France B, DeGiusti K, Shakir SM, Bradley KA, Ballard JD. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 activation is important for anthrax edema toxin-induced dendritic cell maturation and anthrax toxin receptor 2 expression in macrophages. Infect Immun. 2011 Aug; 79(8):3302-8. PMID: 21576335.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    35. Larabee JL, Shakir SM, Hightower L, Ballard JD. Adenomatous polyposis coli protein associates with C/EBP beta and increases Bacillus anthracis edema toxin-stimulated gene expression in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2011 Jun 03; 286(22):19364-72. PMID: 21487015.
      Citations: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Crowe SR, Garman L, Engler RJ, Farris AD, Ballard JD, Harley JB, James JA. Anthrax vaccination induced anti-lethal factor IgG: fine specificity and neutralizing capacity. Vaccine. 2011 May 09; 29(20):3670-8. PMID: 21420416.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    37. Bryant-Hudson KM, Shakir SM, Ballard JD. Autoregulatory characteristics of a Bacillus anthracis serine/threonine kinase. J Bacteriol. 2011 Apr; 193(8):1833-42. PMID: 21296958.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    38. Ballard JD. Medical microbiology: A toxin contest. Nature. 2010 Oct 07; 467(7316):665-6. PMID: 20930831.
      Citations: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    39. Heinlen L, Ballard JD. Clostridium difficile infection. Am J Med Sci. 2010 Sep; 340(3):247-52. PMID: 20697257.
      Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    40. Lanis JM, Barua S, Ballard JD. Variations in TcdB activity and the hypervirulence of emerging strains of Clostridium difficile. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Aug 19; 6(8):e1001061. PMID: 20808849.
      Citations: 51     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. Crowe SR, Ash LL, Engler RJ, Ballard JD, Harley JB, Farris AD, James JA. Select human anthrax protective antigen epitope-specific antibodies provide protection from lethal toxin challenge. J Infect Dis. 2010 Jul 15; 202(2):251-60. PMID: 20533877.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    42. Iyer JK, Khurana T, Langer M, West CM, Ballard JD, Metcalf JP, Merkel TJ, Coggeshall KM. Inflammatory cytokine response to Bacillus anthracis peptidoglycan requires phagocytosis and lysosomal trafficking. Infect Immun. 2010 Jun; 78(6):2418-28. PMID: 20308305.
      Citations: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. Devera TS, Aye LM, Lang GA, Joshi SK, Ballard JD, Lang ML. CD1d-dependent B-cell help by NK-like T cells leads to enhanced and sustained production of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-neutralizing antibodies. Infect Immun. 2010 Apr; 78(4):1610-7. PMID: 20123711.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. Aronoff DM, Ballard JD. Clostridium sordellii toxic shock syndrome. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009 Dec; 9(12):725-6. PMID: 19926032.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    45. Shakir SM, Bryant KM, Larabee JL, Hamm EE, Lovchik J, Lyons CR, Ballard JD. Regulatory interactions of a virulence-associated serine/threonine phosphatase-kinase pair in Bacillus anthracis. J Bacteriol. 2010 Jan; 192(2):400-9. PMID: 19915022.
      Citations: 25     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    46. Wu W, Mehta H, Chakrabarty K, Booth JL, Duggan ES, Patel KB, Ballard JD, Coggeshall KM, Metcalf JP. Resistance of human alveolar macrophages to Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. J Immunol. 2009 Nov 01; 183(9):5799-806. PMID: 19812208.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    47. Joshi SK, Lang GA, Larabee JL, Devera TS, Aye LM, Shah HB, Ballard JD, Lang ML. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin disrupts TCR signaling in CD1d-restricted NKT cells leading to functional anergy. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Sep; 5(9):e1000588. PMID: 19779559.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    48. Nguyen ML, Terzyan S, Ballard JD, James JA, Farris AD. The major neutralizing antibody responses to recombinant anthrax lethal and edema factors are directed to non-cross-reactive epitopes. Infect Immun. 2009 Nov; 77(11):4714-23. PMID: 19720758.
      Citations: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Nguyen ML, Crowe SR, Kurella S, Teryzan S, Cao B, Ballard JD, James JA, Farris AD. Sequential B-cell epitopes of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor bind lethal toxin-neutralizing antibodies. Infect Immun. 2009 Jan; 77(1):162-9. PMID: 18981257.
      Citations: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    50. Barua S, McKevitt M, DeGiusti K, Hamm EE, Larabee J, Shakir S, Bryant K, Koehler TM, Blanke SR, Dyer D, Gillaspy A, Ballard JD. The mechanism of Bacillus anthracis intracellular germination requires multiple and highly diverse genetic loci. Infect Immun. 2009 Jan; 77(1):23-31. PMID: 18936179.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    51. Gut IM, Prouty AM, Ballard JD, van der Donk WA, Blanke SR. Inhibition of Bacillus anthracis spore outgrowth by nisin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Dec; 52(12):4281-8. PMID: 18809941.
      Citations: 22     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    52. Larabee JL, DeGiusti K, Regens JL, Ballard JD. Bacillus anthracis edema toxin activates nuclear glycogen synthase kinase 3beta. Infect Immun. 2008 Nov; 76(11):4895-904. PMID: 18765729.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Stojkovic B, Torres EM, Prouty AM, Patel HK, Zhuang L, Koehler TM, Ballard JD, Blanke SR. High-throughput, single-cell analysis of macrophage interactions with fluorescently labeled Bacillus anthracis spores. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Aug; 74(16):5201-10. PMID: 18552183.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. McKevitt MT, Bryant KM, Shakir SM, Larabee JL, Blanke SR, Lovchik J, Lyons CR, Ballard JD. Effects of endogenous D-alanine synthesis and autoinhibition of Bacillus anthracis germination on in vitro and in vivo infections. Infect Immun. 2007 Dec; 75(12):5726-34. PMID: 17923523.
      Citations: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Voth DE, Ballard JD. Critical intermediate steps in Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin-induced apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Nov 30; 363(4):959-64. PMID: 17910886.
      Citations: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    56. Luo Q, Groh JL, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR. Identification of genes that confer sediment fitness to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Oct; 73(19):6305-12. PMID: 17704273.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    57. Dodd D, Reese JG, Louer CR, Ballard JD, Spies MA, Blanke SR. Functional comparison of the two Bacillus anthracis glutamate racemases. J Bacteriol. 2007 Jul; 189(14):5265-75. PMID: 17496086.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    58. Hamm EE, Ballard JD. Elucidating the in vivo targets of bacterial toxins. Future Microbiol. 2007 Feb; 2(1):85-92. PMID: 17661678.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    59. Groh JL, Luo Q, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR. Genes that enhance the ecological fitness of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in sediments reveal the value of antibiotic resistance. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Jan; 73(2):492-8. PMID: 17114320.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    60. Hamm EE, Voth DE, Ballard JD. Identification of Clostridium difficile toxin B cardiotoxicity using a zebrafish embryo model of intoxication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Sep 19; 103(38):14176-81. PMID: 16966605.
      Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    61. Salles II, Voth DE, Ward SC, Averette KM, Tweten RK, Bradley KA, Ballard JD. Cytotoxic activity of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen observed in a macrophage cell line overexpressing ANTXR1. Cell Microbiol. 2006 Aug; 8(8):1272-81. PMID: 16882031.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    62. Voth DE, Martinez OV, Ballard JD. Variations in lethal toxin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysin production correspond to differences in cytotoxicity among strains of Clostridium sordellii. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006 Jun; 259(2):295-302. PMID: 16734793.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    63. Groh JL, Luo Q, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR. A method adapting microarray technology for signature-tagged mutagenesis of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in anaerobic sediment survival experiments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005 Nov; 71(11):7064-74. PMID: 16269742.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    64. Voth DE, Hamm EE, Nguyen LG, Tucker AE, Salles II, Ortiz-Leduc W, Ballard JD. Bacillus anthracis oedema toxin as a cause of tissue necrosis and cell type-specific cytotoxicity. Cell Microbiol. 2005 Aug; 7(8):1139-49. PMID: 16008581.
      Citations: 30     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    65. Voth DE, Ballard JD. Clostridium difficile toxins: mechanism of action and role in disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2005 Apr; 18(2):247-63. PMID: 15831824.
      Citations: 389     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    66. Voth DE, Qa'Dan M, Hamm EE, Pelfrey JM, Ballard JD. Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin is maintained in a multimeric protein complex. Infect Immun. 2004 Jun; 72(6):3366-72. PMID: 15155642.
      Citations: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    67. Chang IS, Groh JL, Ramsey MM, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR. Differential expression of Desulfovibrio vulgaris genes in response to Cu(II) and Hg(II) toxicity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004 Mar; 70(3):1847-51. PMID: 15006815.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    68. Mourez M, Yan M, Lacy DB, Dillon L, Bentsen L, Marpoe A, Maurin C, Hotze E, Wigelsworth D, Pimental RA, Ballard JD, Collier RJ, Tweten RK. Mapping dominant-negative mutations of anthrax protective antigen by scanning mutagenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Nov 25; 100(24):13803-8. PMID: 14623961.
      Citations: 35     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    69. Salles II, Tucker AE, Voth DE, Ballard JD. Toxin-induced resistance in Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-treated macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Oct 14; 100(21):12426-31. PMID: 14519843.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    70. Chang IS, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR. Evidence for chimeric sequences formed during random arbitrarily primed PCR. J Microbiol Methods. 2003 Sep; 54(3):427-31. PMID: 12842491.
      Citations: 3     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    71. Tucker AE, Salles II, Voth DE, Ortiz-Leduc W, Wang H, Dozmorov I, Centola M, Ballard JD. Decreased glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta levels and related physiological changes in Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-treated macrophages. Cell Microbiol. 2003 Aug; 5(8):523-32. PMID: 12864812.
      Citations: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    72. Spyres LM, Daniel J, Hensley A, Qa'Dan M, Ortiz-Leduc W, Ballard JD. Mutational analysis of the enzymatic domain of Clostridium difficile toxin B reveals novel inhibitors of the wild-type toxin. Infect Immun. 2003 Jun; 71(6):3294-301. PMID: 12761111.
      Citations: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    73. Qa'Dan M, Ramsey M, Daniel J, Spyres LM, Safiejko-Mroczka B, Ortiz-Leduc W, Ballard JD. Clostridium difficile toxin B activates dual caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis in intoxicated cells. Cell Microbiol. 2002 Jul; 4(7):425-34. PMID: 12102688.
      Citations: 43     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    74. Steger JL, Vincent C, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR. Desulfovibrio sp. genes involved in the respiration of sulfate during metabolism of hydrogen and lactate. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002 Apr; 68(4):1932-7. PMID: 11916715.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    75. Qa'Dan M, Spyres LM, Ballard JD. pH-enhanced cytopathic effects of Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin. Infect Immun. 2001 Sep; 69(9):5487-93. PMID: 11500421.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    76. Spyres LM, Qa'Dan M, Meader A, Tomasek JJ, Howard EW, Ballard JD. Cytosolic delivery and characterization of the TcdB glucosylating domain by using a heterologous protein fusion. Infect Immun. 2001 Jan; 69(1):599-601. PMID: 11119561.
      Citations: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    77. Qa'Dan M, Spyres LM, Ballard JD. pH-induced conformational changes in Clostridium difficile toxin B. Infect Immun. 2000 May; 68(5):2470-4. PMID: 10768933.
      Citations: 60     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    78. Doling AM, Ballard JD, Shen H, Krishna KM, Ahmed R, Collier RJ, Starnbach MN. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes fused to anthrax toxin induce protective antiviral immunity. Infect Immun. 1999 Jul; 67(7):3290-6. PMID: 10377103.
      Citations: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    79. Ballard JD, Collier RJ, Starnbach MN. Anthrax toxin as a molecular tool for stimulation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes: disulfide-linked epitopes, multiple injections, and role of CD4(+) cells. Infect Immun. 1998 Oct; 66(10):4696-9. PMID: 9746566.
      Citations: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    80. Roberts JE, Watters JW, Ballard JD, Dietrich WF. Ltx1, a mouse locus that influences the susceptibility of macrophages to cytolysis caused by intoxication with Bacillus anthracis lethal factor, maps to chromosome 11. Mol Microbiol. 1998 Jul; 29(2):581-91. PMID: 9720874.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    81. Ballard JD, Doling AM, Beauregard K, Collier RJ, Starnbach MN. Anthrax toxin-mediated delivery in vivo and in vitro of a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope from ovalbumin. Infect Immun. 1998 Feb; 66(2):615-9. PMID: 9453617.
      Citations: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    82. Ballard JD, Collier RJ, Starnbach MN. Anthrax toxin-mediated delivery of a cytotoxic T-cell epitope in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Oct 29; 93(22):12531-4. PMID: 8901616.
      Citations: 42     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    83. Ballard J, Crabtree J, Roe BA, Tweten RK. The primary structure of Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin exhibits similarity with that of Aeromonas hydrophila aerolysin. Infect Immun. 1995 Jan; 63(1):340-4. PMID: 7806374.
      Citations: 19     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    84. Johnson S, Driks MR, Tweten RK, Ballard J, Stevens DL, Anderson DJ, Janoff EN. Clinical courses of seven survivors of Clostridium septicum infection and their immunologic responses to alpha toxin. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Oct; 19(4):761-4. PMID: 7803645.
      Citations: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    85. Ballard J, Sokolov Y, Yuan WL, Kagan BL, Tweten RK. Activation and mechanism of Clostridium septicum alpha toxin. Mol Microbiol. 1993 Nov; 10(3):627-34. PMID: 7968539.
      Citations: 23     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    86. Ballard J, Bryant A, Stevens D, Tweten RK. Purification and characterization of the lethal toxin (alpha-toxin) of Clostridium septicum. Infect Immun. 1992 Mar; 60(3):784-90. PMID: 1541552.
      Citations: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    87. Bigham SL, Ballard JD, Giles KD, Clelland CS, Jeffcoat R, Griffin KS, Farley TD, Bushman DR, Wright JR. Synthesis and possible applications of biotin-linked copper clusters. Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR. 1990; 22(2):63-72. PMID: 2100006.
      Citations:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
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